9Feiss lineMediale malleol – navicula medialt – grundled I
10Achillessene Da Achillessenen ”knækker” ved pronation vil hyperpronationkunne forårsage et ”piskesmæld”af Achillessenen og dermedudløse en irritation.Et indlæg kan reducere:hastigheden af pronationenstørrelsen af pronationenog dermed aflaste AchillessenenLangberg, H.
12Navicular drop test ”Our results suggest that ND Measurements taken with the methods described have very good intrarater and interrater reliability, especially when 3 measurements are averaged.Shrader et al . Physical Therapy . Volume 85 . Number 7 . July 2005
13Navicular drop testNavicular drop measurement is defined as the difference in height of the most prominent aspect of the navicular tuberosity when the subtalar joint is placed in “neutral” as compared with when the foot is positioned in a relaxed standing foot postureSell KE, Verity TM, Worrell TW, et al. Two measurement techniquesfor assessing subtalar joint position: a reliability study. J Orthop SportsPhys Ther. 1994;19:162–167.Brody DM. Techniques in the evaluation and treatment of theinjured runner. Orthop Clin North Am. 1982;13:541–558.
14Navicular drop test1: Find naviculares mest prominerende punkt medialt – marker punktet2: mål afstanden fra punktet til gulvet I siddende stilling3: mål afstanden fra punktet til gulvet I stående stilling4. Fortolkning af data:Hyperpronation eller kollaps af den mediale svangbue:- =10 eller >10 mm forskel mellem 2 og 3- tydelig assymmetri mellem hø/ve.KommentarVarians på 7 mm eller mere kræver ofte indlæg. Selv varianser på 5 mm drop kan være indikation for orthoser til atleter eller andre der udsættes for vægtbæring over længere tid.ReferenceBrody D. Techniques in the evaluation and treatment of the injured runner. Orthop Clin North Am 1982;13:Picciano AM, et al. Reliability of open and closed kinetic chain subtalar neutral positions and navicular drop test. J Orth Sports Phys Ther 1993;18:
16EMG in pronatorsEMG research has shown that excessive pronation affects the timing and magnitude of extrinsic muscle activity. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between excessive pronation and isokinetic strength of the ankle. The following measures were performed on 24 subjects (12 pronators, 12 normals) matched for gender and weight: 1) plantarflexion, dorsiflexion, inversion and eversion strength, both eccentrically and concentrically, determined by isokinetic peak torque at 30 degrees/sec; and 2) excessive pronation determined by navicular drop. Subjects with excessive pronation were found to have no difference in invertor strength, but decreased concentric plantarflexion strength when compared to normals. This finding agrees with biomechanical theory suggesting that a pronated foot is less rigid and generates less torque. Differences in strength ratios in excessive pronators were also observed and attributed to the decrease in plantarflexion strength.Snook AG. Foot Ankle Int Mar;22(3):The relationship between excessive pronation as measured by navicular drop and isokinetic strength of the ankle musculature.
17New worn shoesComparing the kinetics and kinematics of running in new and worn shoes was investigated. Three types of footwear using different cushioning technologies were compared.Participants: 24 runners (14 men and 10 women)Interventions: 200 miles of road running in the same pair of shoes. Within-group factor: shoe condition (new/worn); between-group factor: footwear type (air/gel/spring).Results: Stance time increased (p = 0.035) in worn shoes. The torso displayed less maximum forward lean (p<0.001) and less forward lean at toe-off (p<0.001), while the ankle displayed reduced maximum dorsiflexion (p = 0.013) and increased plantar flexion at toe-off (p<0.001) in worn shoes. No changes in the hip and knee angles. No between-group difference among the three footwear groups or condition by type interaction was found in any measured variables.Conclusions: As shoe cushioning capability decreases, runners modify their patterns to maintain constant external loads. The adaptation strategies to shoe degradation were unaffected by different cushioning technologies, suggesting runners should choose shoes for reasons other than cushioning technology.P W Kong et al Running in new and worn shoes: a comparison of three types of cushioning footwear. Br J Sports Med 43:
18Barefoot shodBarefoot running is characterized by a significantly larger external loading rate than the shod condition. The flatter foot placement at touchdown is prepared in free flight, implying an actively induced adaptation strategy. In the barefoot condition, plantar pressure measurements reveal a flatter foot placement to correlate with lower peak heel pressures. Therefore, it is assumed that runners adopt this different touchdown geometry in barefoot running in an attempt to limit the local pressure underneath the heel. A significantly higher leg stiffness during the stance phase was found for the barefoot condition. The sagittal kinematic adaptations between conditions were found in the same way for all subjects and at the three running velocities. However, large individual variations were observed between the runners for the rearfoot kinematics.Biomechanical analysis of the stance phase during barefoot and shod running. Journal of Biomechanics, Volume 33, Issue 3, Pages B.De Wit