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JØRGEN BANG Informations- og medievidenskab Aarhus Universitet

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1 JØRGEN BANG Informations- og medievidenskab Aarhus Universitet
Læring, samarbejde og vidensdeling på nettet - et international perspektiv JØRGEN BANG Informations- og medievidenskab Aarhus Universitet

2 Strukturen i min præsentation
Samarbejde og vidensdeling i relation til læring Hvorfor er de forventninger som blev stillet til e-læring ikke blevet opfyldt? Hvorfor synes læringsobjekter alligevel ikke at være svaret på samarbejdsproblemet? Hvorfor er vidensdeling inden for undervis-ningsområdet så svært? RUC marts 05 UNEV temadag - J.Bang

3 ‘webucation’ I 1997 Peter Drucker predicted that
“universities won’t survive … as a residential institution” (quoted from The Guardian, April 13, 2004). RUC marts 05 UNEV temadag - J.Bang

4 US e-learning initiativer
New York University Online Fathom - Columbia University + 14 universiteter, bibliotekr og museer University of Phoenix (IT, Business Studies, Health Studies) RUC marts 05 UNEV temadag - J.Bang

5 Europæiske initiativer
UKeU Dutch Digital University Virtuelle Hochschule Bayern Finish Virtual University Svenske Nät-Universität RUC marts 05 UNEV temadag - J.Bang

6 Politiske udspil The Lisbon Stategy - March 2000
Europe. An Informations Society for All “the most competitive and dynamic knowledge based economy in the world” by 2010 e-Learning - Designing tomorrow’s education - May 2000 The Bologna Declaration RUC marts 05 UNEV temadag - J.Bang

7 OECD - rapport 2001 "In spite of having spent US$ 16 billion in 1999 in OECD countries on ICT, there is little evidence that ICT meets the original promise of better education for more people at less cost. As a result there are now concerns over the return investment. (…) There is however no clear evidence that ICT investments made by the public sector have resulted in improved performance of teachers and/or learners, nor that it has improved the quality and access to educational resources on the scale predicted. Nonetheless, there is a general consensus that the ICT opportunity is still valid, and an acceptance as fact that ICT is part of daily life, forever changing the way people learn, work and play." E-Learning. The Partnership Challenge (2001) (p. 24) RUC marts 05 UNEV temadag - J.Bang

8 Reding in Karlsruhe 2003 “Modern e-learning solutions now recognise the importance of learning as a social process and offer possibilities for collaboration with other learners, for interaction with the learning content and for guidance from teachers, trainers and tutors. The learner-centric approaches have put the learner back in command, with a wealth of learning resources at their fingertips. Teachers and trainers once more play a central role, using virtual and traditional face-to-face interaction with their students in a “blended” approach. An approach in which they are no longer seen simply as consumers of pre-determined e-learning content, but as editors, authors and contributors to a contextualised learning scenario”. RUC marts 05 UNEV temadag - J.Bang

9 Wim Kok rapport, nov. 2004 “In order to ensure future economic growth, the EU needs a comprehensive and holistic strategy to spur on the growth of the ICT sector and the diffusion of ICTs in all parts of the economy. The top priority is to implement the eEurope action plan, which calls for measures to promote e-commerce, e-government and e-learning”. Facing the Challenge. The Lisbon Strategy for Growth and Employment (November 2004)(p. 22) RUC marts 05 UNEV temadag - J.Bang

10 OECD - rapport 2001 "Technology alone does not deliver educational success. It only becomes valuable in education if learners and teachers can do something useful with it. (…) It is a classic chicken and egg problem. The infrastructure, personal computer penetration and Internet connectivity must be in place for the software and applications to work. On the other hand just having the pipes in place with little or no educational software available generates disappointment and puts many teachers and learners off the online experiences altogether. (…) Another aspect of the "global chicken and local egg" problem is that educational content does often not travel well across borders. What is appropriate and works in one culture does not necessarily translate to another. (…) (…) educational content and e-learning services (…) need to be tailored to local needs and cultures." (p ). RUC marts 05 UNEV temadag - J.Bang

11 The VET-report Nov. 2004 “e-Learning clearly has the potential to stimulate learning networks and new forms of training organisation. The basic principle of good pedagogy remains that the design of the whole learning process (possible supported by e-learning) is the decisive factor for the learner’s success. Therefore, European countries’ e-learning related measures should not be limited to questions of hard- and software, but rather focus on the pedagogy and e-learning in work processes.” Achieving the Lisbon goal: The contribution of vocational education and training (VET), Executive Summary, November 4, 2004 (p. 17) RUC marts 05 UNEV temadag - J.Bang

12 Fra teknologi til pædagogik
Most people (…) think that the Internet, itself, is the key factor in the success of e-learning. However, a vast amount of research provides evidence for the proposition that it is not the medium (Internet), itself, which is accountable for the accomplishment of these promises, but the pedagogical design used in conjunction with the features of the medium. (Rob Koper: Modeling units of study from az pedagogical perspektive. The pedagogical meta-model behind EML, 2001, p.3) RUC marts 05 UNEV temadag - J.Bang

13 Rapport fra VTU, 2003 I rapporten Perspektiver for kompetenceudvikling. Rapport om e-læring står der: ”(…) at e-læring ikke er et vidundermiddel, der kan anvendes til løsning af enhver kompetence-udviklingsopgave. E-læring skal, som andre værktøjer, anvendes med omtanke. E-læring skal anvendes, hvor det giver faglig, pædagogisk og økonomisk mening i forhold til formålet” (p.3). RUC marts 05 UNEV temadag - J.Bang

14 Succes faktorer Pædagogiske fokus i stedet for teknologisk
Kulturel forankring af indhold Reaktivering af lærerrollen Blended learning Augmented realities Interaktion, kollaboration, konstruktion RUC marts 05 UNEV temadag - J.Bang

15 Læringsobjekter “This is the fundamental idea behind learning objects: instructional designers can build small (relative to the size of an entire course) instructional components that can be reused a number of times in different learning contexts. Additionally, learning objects are generally understood to be digital entities deliverable over the Internet, meaning that any number of people can access and use them simultaneously (as opposed to traditional instructional media, such as an overhead or video tape, which can only exist in one place at a time). Moreover, those who incorporate learning objects can collaborate on and benefit immediately from new versions. These are significant differences between learning objects and other instructional media that have existed previously.” (Wiley: Connecting learning objects to instructional design theory: A definition, a metaphor, and a taxonomy”, In: The Instructional Use of Learning Objects, 2002) RUC marts 05 UNEV temadag - J.Bang

16 Kritik af læringsobjekt-tanken
“Instructional design is based on the empiric assumption that behaviour is predictable, and that educational design, therefore, can occur in isolation from educational execution. Educational developers in this tradition concentrate primarily on the choice and organisation of the content that students must make their own” (p.14). “In distance education and in the classic instructional-design approach it happens fairly often that instructional materials and the media, rather than the learning activities, are central.” ( p. 12) (Rob Koper: From change to renewal: Educational technology foundations af electronic learning environments, Educational Thechnology Expertice Centre 2000) RUC marts 05 UNEV temadag - J.Bang

17 From learning objects to events
(…) a lot of learning does not come from knowledge resources at all, but stems from the activities of learners solving problems, interacting with real devices, interacting in their social and work situation. A lot of research about learning processes provides evidence for this stance that learning doesn't come from the provision of knowledge solely, but that it is the activities of the learners into the learning environment which are accountable for the learning. (…) the smallest unit providing learning events for learners, satisfying one or more interrelated learning objectives. This means that a unit of study can not be broken down to its component parts without loosing its semantic and pragmatic meaning and its effectiveness towards the attainment of learning objectives (Koper, 2001, p. 3) RUC marts 05 UNEV temadag - J.Bang

18 Relationsmodel RUC marts 05 UNEV temadag - J.Bang

19 Læringsaktiviteter An advantage of liberating learning resources from the one to one relation with a learning activity and a learning objective is the option of adapting a learning resource to different learning situations by applying different learning activities. Within this optic the creation of relevant learning activities becomes essential. A learning activity bridges between the interests and cultural heritage of students and the relevant learning resources chosen to reach the learning objective. Furthermore the teacher is reinstalled in a position as responsible for organising the learning process by creating the relevant learning activities for his or her students. (Bang & Dalsgaard, 2005) RUC marts 05 UNEV temadag - J.Bang

20 Læringsressourcer The question is how to design learning resources which support active collaborative learning processes and at the same time incorporate the qualities of flexibility contained in learning objects. The consequence is that it is necessary to create multiple descriptions of learning resources. The result is flexible and dynamic metadata. Metadata should be flexible in the sense that several different metadata descriptions can be attached to a single learning resource. Further, metadata should be dynamic in the sense that it is possible to constantly attach additional metadata. (Bang & Dalsgaard, 2005) RUC marts 05 UNEV temadag - J.Bang

21 Vidensdeling i organisationer
The discourse on organizational learning and how to support organizational learning within this field, however, seems to merely reflect learning as a process of acquiring, storing, applying, and distributing knowledge as if knowledge is a “thing” or a commodity. (…) The prevailing idea seems to be that IT-support may provide the organization with the capacity to search for, collect, acquire, and distribute knowledge as well as to create an electronic organizational memory. (…) The consequence is that learning is viewed solely as information and knowledge processing and not as social processes of human interaction and development. (Broendsted & Elkjaer: Information Technology as a Fellow Player in Organizational Learning, In: Global Co-Operation in the New Millennium, 2001: 687). RUC marts 05 UNEV temadag - J.Bang

22 Videndeling og læring Er der ”en så tæt sammenhæng mellem de it-baserede programmer der anvendes til “knowledge management” og vidensdeling, og forstillingerne om vidensoverførsel som tankpasserpædagogik, at det er umuligt at anvende samme teknologi til vidensdeling inden for samarbejdsrelationer baseret på en konstruktivistisk læringsopfattelse? (...) Ser man på de læringsplatforme eller e-læringssystemer som er tilgængelige på markedet, er det tydeligt, at man sammen med en rækker funktionaliteter også køber et pædagogiske koncept (...) Tilsvarende indeholder store “knowledge management” systemer også et koncept for hvad viden er, hvorledes den skal organiseres og hvordan den skal formidles – distribueres. Derfor kan man ikke bare overtage virksomhedernes “knowledge management” systemer og bruge dem til vidensdeling i institutioner der bygger på et andet videns- og læringsbegreb (Bang: Hvorfor er vidensdeling så svært? IN: Heilesen, S, ed.: Det digitale nærvær. Viden og design i nye medier, Roskilde Universitetsforlag, p RUC marts 05 UNEV temadag - J.Bang

23 Erfaringer fra ITMF-projekt 1
Den enkelte skole er en vidende organisation hvor viden er bundet til enkeltpersoner. Fra kollega til kollega overføres der viden og udveksles der erfaringer i det daglige på lærerværelset. I diverse fagudvalg diskuteres også de forskellige undervisningsmaterialers anvendelighed. Denne spontane mundtlige udveksling af erfaringer er vigtig for arbejdsklimaet på en skole. Skolen som lærerarbejdsplads er et klart eksempel på et “community of practice” hvor nye lærere langsomt optages i fællesskabet via “legitimate peripheral participation”. Udvekslingen af erfaringer er oftest en udveksling af “operationel” viden som ikke nødvendigvis bliver til “deklarativ” viden i situationen. Samtidig er der en udbredt ydmyghed blandt lærere: man skilter ikke med sin viden – man skal spørges om sine erfaringer. RUC marts 05 UNEV temadag - J.Bang

24 Erfaringer fra ITMF-projekt 2
Problemet er imidlertid, at systematisk erfaringsopsamling forudsætter skriftlighed og offentliggørelse – og det er en helt anden kultur end den eksisterende mundtlige skolekultur. Forskningsprojektet viste at de involverede lærerne kunne se perspektiverne i en systematisk erfaringsopsamling, men også at de var fuldt ud klar over vanskelighederne ved at ændre den herskende kultur. Der er tale om både at tilføre lærergerningen respekt, give lærerne deres selvværd tilbage efter mange års deklassering, og udvikle it-systemer som dels kan understøtte en skriftliggørelse af deres refleksioner over praksis, dels opsamle, systematisere og formidle dem, så de bliver anvendelige for kolleger RUC marts 05 UNEV temadag - J.Bang

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