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Entrepreneurship in research education - Future needs

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1 Entrepreneurship in research education - Future needs
Kristian E. Stubkjaer

2 Technical University of Denmark (DTU)
Founded in 1829 The famous Danish scientist H.C. Ørsted was the first Rector In 2001, the Technical University of Denmark achieved autonomy In 2004 the science and industry park SCION was incorporated into DTU On 1 January 2007, DTU merged with Risø National Laboratory, the Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research, the Danish Institute for Fisheries Research, the Danish National Space Center, and the Danish Transport Research Institute. The new Technical University of Denmark is a broadly founded, business-oriented technological university where research goes hand in hand with education, innovation and advisory functions for government authorities.

3 Facts and Figures 2007 Turnover 415 mill. Euro Students: 7000 Students
850 PhD-students (3 years) 600 Exchange students (3-6 months) 200 DTU students in international exchange 900 Participants in supplementary and further education Innovation: 80 Patent proposals 55 Accepted patent proposals 30 Filed patent applications Staff: (FTE) 550 Faculty members 1050 Senior researchers (permanent contr.) 500 Researchers (non permanent contr.) 1950 Support staff Research: 1833 Research papers in ISI-journals 175 PhD dissertations Turnover 415 mill. Euro

4 Uddrag af ph.d. bekendtgørelsen
§ 1. Ph.d.-uddannelsen er en forskeruddannelse, der har til formål i samspil med den internationale forskningsverden at uddanne forskere på internationalt niveau. Ph.d.-uddannelsen gennemføres hovedsageligt gennem udøvelse af aktivt forskningsarbejde under vejledning. Stk. 2. Ph.d.-uddannelsen tager sigte på at opfylde nuværende og fremtidige behov for kvalificeret arbejdskraft til forsknings-, udviklings- og undervisningsopgaver i relation til universiteter, andre institutioner, virksomheder og organisationer samt til andre offentlige og private funktioner, hvor der forudsættes et bredt kendskab til forskning. Entrepreneurship not mentioned – but an element we emphasize

5 Fundamental elements for (modern) universities
Next generation scientists Courses get input from new research Education Research Students learn industry's way of thinking, IPR etc. Student projects also a way of creating innovation Life long learning for industry staff Research projects result in new knowledge and products Industry's needs influence research topics Innovation

6 DTU – Collaboration with industry and technology transfer
In a DTU-context innovation is research based progress – preferably sustainable – at an external partner aiming at value added growth It can happen via common projects with companies (student projects, collaborative projects etc.) or by transfer of IP (know-how, inventions, software).

7 Objectives for innovation
DTU will have a coherent system of innovation that includes research, education, patenting, licensing, industrial cooperation, company incubation and activities related to science parks DTU will offer a program of continuing and further education with broad coverage that disseminates the newest insight into the technical and natural sciences to companies professionals and individuals

8 A classification for innovation
Harley’s for middle-aged men, mechanical watches ’Red ocean’ & incremental innovation. Market Old New Technology Old (known) State of the art Trends and fashion User/customer driven Technology driven Smaller mobile phones Radical, disruptive, Blue Ocean. Smarter mobile phones and PCs

9 Players and relations in Entrepreneurship
IPU DTU Væksthus+ AFI Cooperation with GTS institutes DTU Inno- vation A/S DFM A/S Bioneer A/S SCION-DTU A/S Seed Capital

10 What is Entrepreneurship?
Entrepreneurship is "the process of looking at things in such a way, that possible solutions to problems and perceived needs may evolve in venturing." Saskatchewan Government; Ministry of Learning venture (plural ventures) A risky or daring journey or undertaking. Here: a risky commercial undertaking with an upside - a so-called hockey stick - John Heebøll VÆKSTHUS+

11 Why is Entrepreneurship important?
Can a University make a Difference? MIT, Cambridge, Boston One in four faculty involved in technology venturing companies founded by graduates and faculty since 1861 Employees at MIT– companies > Sales of MIT- companies > $250 Billion/yr (DKK 2005: 285 Billion USD) If a nation: 24th largest in the world John Heebøll VÆKSTHUS+

12 Why is Entrepreneurship important?
Does it matter what a university does? Technical University of Denmark John Heebøll VÆKSTHUS+

13 DTU opfindelser 31. december 2006 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Totalt Modtagne anmeldelser 25 37 35 46 44 53* 275 Overtaget 17 26 18 39 34 29 189 Efterfølgende tilbagegivet opfinderne 8 11 19 16 7 1 80 ** Solgt til selskaber 4 3 5 17 **** Licens til selskaber 2 Solgt til Start-up selskaber 6 14 **** Licens til Start-up Ret til fremtidige opfindelser til Start-up Indgivne patent-ansøgninger 15 13 31 28 21 135 *** 10 opfindelser er i 2 mdr. perioden ** Registreres i det år, opfindelsen blev anmeldt ***Der er indgivet 135 patentansøgninger for DTU opfindelser (heraf 14 i fællesskab med andre institutioner/ selskaber), 54 er senere tilbagegivet til opfinderne, 14 patentansøgninger er indgivet af andre selskaber under samarbejdsaftaler **** 13 opfindelser, solgt inden patentansøgning var indgivet, ville også være blevet patentansøgt af DTU Patentportefølje: 9 udstedte patenter *

14 Contribution of PhD students to inventions
2005 2006 2007* Total number of patent ideas 44 53 14 number with ph.d. students involved 21 24 6 PhD students represent a huge potential Half with PhD students Optag skal være 261 i 2007, 331 i 2008, 361 i 2009 og 401 i 2010

15 DTU cases .

16 Variety of PhD programs and financing
DTU stipends Co-financing via research schools (3x1/3) Industry participation – typically with co-supervision Industrial PhD-program Industry employment – co-supervision Research councils EEC research programs Industry (part or complete financing) Innovation-PhD (5 students – trial started in 2004)

17 How do we encourage PhD entrepreneurship?
Applicants have to state innovative aspects of proposed study General introduction on how to handle IPR Elective entrepreneurship courses are available General (PhD as an employee) DTU encourages employees/students to consider starting new companies Departments are dedicated to further innovation by supporting company formation Knowledge based entrepreneurs have access to facilities, consultancy and (pre-seed) capital DTU has established paradigms for transferring IPR to start-up companies

18 Courses addressing patenting
Informatics and Mathematical Modelling ITMAN Graduate School Seminars BioCentrum-DTU Research and Development Pharmaceutical Technology Bioinformatics and Gene Discovery FOOD Summer School: FOOD - a matter of life and death Department of Chemical Engineering Chemical and Biochemical Product Design1 Design and test your own product ideas Ørsted DTU Biomedical product development Department of Mechanical Engineering Innovation in Product Development Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management Advanced Surface Technology Business Law for engineers Knowledge based Entrepreneurship Technology, economics, management and organisation Study Division Information Retrieval

19 Entrepreneurship course for PhD students
Ph.D. Course 42705 Knowledge based Entrepreneurship First time: 2005 5 ECTS, 100 – 150 hours See Only precondition: > 10 students sign up Takes 8 – 9 weeks, lectures, 6 afternoons 30 students attended in spring 2007 Given by VÆKSTHUS+

20 42435 Knowledge based Entrepreneurship
“Hi All I just finished this year’s version of the DTU course 42705 ‘Knowledge based entrepreneurship’ and I am convinced that this is the course, of all courses undertaken so far, that will have the biggest impact on my future.” Jeppe Enable students to: Identify business opportunities Develop business ideas (Opportunity driven creativity) Develop business models Analyse markets for technological products and services Set up questionaires and inverview customers Analyze customer value proposition Plan the establishment of a company (Business planning) Determine capital requirements Establish cash flow projection Establish budgets on profit/loss, assets/liabilities Calculate an equity investment Specify management competence profiles Clayton M. Christensen in ’Innovators Dilemma’: Markets that Don’t Exist Can’t Be Analyzed

21 Our Innovation-PhD trial
Started in 2004 with Lars Henning (Rindorf) Sarah (Ruepp) Troels (Christensen) Lars Tønnes (Jakobsen) Niels (Bech) Each presented an idea suitable for PhD study + product development All 5 expected to finish later in 2007!

22 What is an Innovation-PhD?
Standard DTU PhD study, plus: Insights into innovative and economic aspects of research & development and IPR Writing of a business plan Criteria of success: Clarification of the timeframe for commercial introduction of the investigated area Company start-up Transfer of technology (e.g. a patent) Introduction of a product Fra hjemmesiden om Innovations PhD: Det er et succeskriterium for projektet, at det på sigt bidrager til en virksomhedsopstart inden for det særlige forskningsområde, teknologi overførelse eller på sigt bidrager til en introduktion af et produkt. Sarah Ruepp COM-DTU

23 Niels’ idea: Flash pyrolysis of straw

24 Straw for energy Increasing interest in straw as energy
Introduction > Flash Pyrolysis > Pyrolyzer > Products > PCR > Results > Conclusions 24/12 Straw for energy Increasing interest in straw as energy 130 MMton straw in EU 30 to 50 % available Baled-straw has low energy density Transport >75% related to logistics N. BECH, 15th European Biomass Conference,

25 Bench Pyrolysis Centrifuge
Development of a reactor system for conversion of straw to high density bio-oil or bio-slurry in the field

26 The Pyrolyzer Resolve dilemma
Introduction > Flash Pyrolysis > Pyrolyzer > Products > PCR > Results > Conclusions 26/12 The Pyrolyzer Resolve dilemma Eliminate baling, handling, and transport of straw Improve farmer’s financial incentive Bech et al. WO 2006/ N. BECH, 15th European Biomass Conference,

27 Lars’ idea: Crystal fiber for detection of bio molecules
Fluoresces Evanescent wave sensing DNA og proteins Jesper B. Jensen et al. (2004) Optics Letters 29: Jesper Bo Jensen et al. (2005) Optics Express 15:5883 Lars Rindorf et al. (2006) Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (accepteret)

28 Troels’ idea: Lab-on-a-chip sample pretreatment

29 Sarah’s idea: Network Survivability
Network failures affect our society, and should hence be avoided or rapidly recovered from through smart network design and efficient recovery mechanisms. Making optical networks resilient to failures in a dynamic way (restoration) Developing algorithms and methods to achieve efficient restoration, Evaluating the possibility of applying network restoration techniques in today’s and near-future networks, possibly patenting some of the findings, developing a software product Til billedet: Forskellige fejl i netværket: Software fejl, jordskælv, oversvømmelser, power failures, equipment degrading, og overgravning af kabler. Overgravning af kabler ved byggearbejde er den hyppigste årsag til fejl. Jan – Juni 2005: I alt har der i år været 36 tilfælde af større kabelbrud som følge af gravearbejder. 'Større kabelbrud' er, når der sker brud på kabler med flere end 1000 abonnenter. Der er sket over 10’000 kabelbrud hvor mindre end 1000 abonnenter er blevet påvirket (source: TDC webpage)

30 Lars T’s idea: Digital control of switching power converters
Digital power management can reduce power consumption in processor units and other equipment by controlling the voltage as a function of processor load

31 Pros and Cons of an Innovation PhD Sarah’s view
Ones research work may be directly applied in a new product or company, which is very motivating Chance to learn about the economic aspects of research Coaching by entrepreneur experts (i.e. DTU Innovation) Scientific curriculum can be extended with courses related to entrepreneurship, IPR, business economy, etc., which gives a broader scope and understanding Focus on potentially patentable ideas from the start of the PhD study Cons and Challenges: Extended workload (the ”innovation part” comes as surplus to standard PhD work) Difficulty to participate in industrial collaborations due to potential IPR issues Not being able to research ”freely”, all work should be related to potential product

32 Conclusions PhD education:
Focus should always be on high level research Continue and improve information on entrepreneurship Make courses on entrepreneurship mandatory? More Innovation-PhD’s? Important that the university environment in general is entrepreneurial and supports innovative efforts Einstein: Not everything that counts can be counted Not everything that can be counted counts


34 Entrepreneurkursus Faglig orientering Tekniske målområder defineres af interessefelterne for institutterne COM, Ørsted og MIC. Kommercialisering Fokus på etablering, udvikling og salg af virksomhed i samarbejde med investorer og strategiske partnere. Læringsmetodik Forelæsninger, cases, projektarbejde i grupper på 2 – 4 deltagere. Evaluering Præsentation af forretningsplan Merit 5 point Placering Forelæsninger: 5 eftermiddage à 3 timer. 1 forelæsningsdag per uge. Kick-off, tirsdag 5. april klokken 14.00 Projektarbejde: 2 måneder fra kick-off med vejledning 1X per uge efter aftale. Evaluering: tirsdag 31. maj. Fagligt indhold • Entrepreneurskab og erfaringslære • Forretningsidéer og forretningsmodeller • Erhvervsjura: immaterialret og selskabsret for videnbaserede iværksættere • Finansiering: kapitaltyper, finansieringsmodeller, pre-seed og early stage investorer • Afsætningsøkonomi: Michael Porters markedsmodel, research, analyse, markedsføring • Erhvervsøkonomi: grundlæggende virksomhedsøkonomi, budgettering • Forretningsplanlægning Cases (tentativt) • Alight (John E. Østergaard) • MMPhotons (Bonni Kryger) • Nanomask (Theodor Nielsen) • Image Metrology (Jan Friis Jørgensen) Vejledning • John Heebøll • Eksterne parter efter nærmere aftale. Optag skal være 261 i 2007, 331 i 2008, 361 i 2009 og 401 i 2010

35 The entrepreneur has an enthusiastic vision, the driving force of an enterprise.
The entrepreneur's vision is usually supported by an interlocked collection of specific ideas not available to the marketplace. The overall blueprint to realize the vision is clear, however details may be incomplete, flexible, and evolving. The entrepreneur promotes the vision with enthusiastic passion. With persistence and determination, the entrepreneur develops strategies to change the vision into reality. The entrepreneur takes the initial responsibility to cause a vision to become a success. Entrepreneurs take prudent risks. They assess costs, market/customer needs and persuade others to join and help. An entrepreneur is usually a positive thinker and a decision maker.

36 Entrepreneurkursus, PhD-niveau
KURSUSBESKRIVELSE Målsætning Kursusdeltager skal udvikle grundlæggende og praktisk anvendelige kompetencer indenfor forretningsmæssig nyttiggørelse af avanceret teknisk viden, teknologi og forskningsresultater. Resultatet af kursusdeltagelsen er en grundlæggende forretningsplan, som præsenteres af projektgruppen (2-4 deltagere) for faglærer og censor, ultimo maj. Optag skal være 261 i 2007, 331 i 2008, 361 i 2009 og 401 i 2010

37 DTU framework for company formation
DTU encourages employees and students to consider starting up new companies Departments are dedicated to further innovation by supporting company formation Knowledge based entrepreneurs have access to facilities, consultancy and (pre-seed) capital DTU has established paradigms for transferring IPR to start-up companies Elective entrepreneurship courses are availble to and ph.d. students Study line in Design & Innovation

38 New products & services
Many Factors Patents & licences Technology Human resources Facilities Capital New enterprises New products & services

39 ITMAN Graduate School Seminars
The aim of this course is to give a broad introduction to a series of non-technical-scientific subjects which are vital for the PhD student’s academic and private business career. The invited guest speakers will introduce their specialist topics and expand on these according to the specific needs of the target audience, e.g. “how to secure a software patent”, “how to raise capital for private enterprise” and “dissemination of knowledge in research networks”. The students will achieve a general knowledge and insight into related, relevant fields which will enable them to improve their overall communication, research and business competences in relation to their PhD studies. Each student will, according to own interests and goal, further develop (a) given topic(s) in relation to his/her PhD project in a short report.

40 What is Entrepreneurship? II
VÆKSTHUS+ What is Entrepreneurship? II Entrepreneurship is the practice of starting new ventures, particularly new businesses. No – it’s about new business areas; mostly exploited by existing companies Entrepreneurship is often a difficult undertaking, as a majority of new businesses fail. – Wrong in high-tech venturing Entrepreneurial activities are substantially different depending on the type of organization that is being started. Partly right – but venturing in a specific business area is pretty much the same inside a company compared to starting a new one Entrepreneurship may involve creating many job opportunities. Yes indeed – and a lot of values too. Wikipedia - the free encyclopedia that anyone can edit John Heebøll VÆKSTHUS+

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