Præsentation er lastning. Vent venligst

Præsentation er lastning. Vent venligst

7/2 2007Lektion 41 History of Interaction Dourish forord og kapitel 1 Bannon (kompendiet s. 3) Anker Helms Jørgensen IT-Universitetet i København Interaktionsdesign.

Lignende præsentationer

Præsentationer af emnet: "7/2 2007Lektion 41 History of Interaction Dourish forord og kapitel 1 Bannon (kompendiet s. 3) Anker Helms Jørgensen IT-Universitetet i København Interaktionsdesign."— Præsentationens transcript:

1 7/2 2007Lektion 41 History of Interaction Dourish forord og kapitel 1 Bannon (kompendiet s. 3) Anker Helms Jørgensen IT-Universitetet i København Interaktionsdesign og Etnografi Lektion 3

2 7/2 2007Lektion 42 Oversigt Indledning: om bogen Forordet Kapitel 1 Afrunding Bannon: From Human Factors to Human Actors

3 7/2 2007Lektion 43 Hvad handler denne forelæsning om ?

4 7/2 2007Lektion 44 Titlen: Where the action is ?? Hvordan skal den forstås?

5 7/2 2007Lektion 45 Where the action is First, it is about a perspective that places the action of embodied agents center stage (ix) Rather than take action to be generated from or subservient to abstract reasoning, the perspective I will explore here sees embodied practical action in the world as the foundation for our conscious experience (ix) Second, this approach is "where the action is" in the sense that it provides a way to understand the contributions and opportunities emerging from dynamic new forms of technological practice (ix)

6 7/2 2007Lektion 46 Hvad handler Dourish's bog om?

7 7/2 2007Lektion 47 Hvad handler Dourish's bog om? Embodied Interaction A Theoretical Foundation for Embodied Interaction Going from the starting point Beyond the desktop and HCI to the new developments Tangible and Social Computing to Embodied Interaction in four steps –Tangible and social computing have a common basis –Embodiment is the core element –Embodiment is not new, can be informed by phenomenology –Phenomenology can help provide a foundation for embodied interaction Human-Computer Interaction Tangible Computing Social Computing Embodied Interaction

8 7/2 2007Lektion 48 Hvad handler Dourish's bog om? (omslag) In this book Paul Dourish addresses the philosophical bases of human-computer interaction. He Looks for what he calls "embodied interaction" - an approach to interacting with software systems that emphasizes skilled, engaged practice rather than disembodied rationality - reflects the phenomenological approaches of Martin Heidegger, Ludwig Wittgenstein, and other twentieth-century philosophers. The phenomenological tradition emphasizes the primacy of natural practice over abstract cognition in everyday activity. Human-Computer Interaction Tangible Computing Social Computing Embodied Interaction

9 7/2 2007Lektion 49 Hvad handler Dourish's bog om? He looks in particular at how tangible and social approaches to interaction are related, and how they can be used to analyze and understand embodied interaction, and how they should affect the design of future interactive systems. Ikke specielt interaktionsdesign - osse software Human-Computer Interaction Tangible Computing Social Computing Embodied Interaction

10 7/2 2007Lektion 410 Hvem er Paul Dourish? Paul Dourish is a computer scientist best known for his work at the intersection of computer science and social science Professor at the University of California, Irvine since 2000 B.Sc. in Artificial Intelligence and Computer Science from the University of Edinburgh in 1989 Ph.D. in Computer Science at University College London He has worked in research laboratories at Apple and at XEROX PARC and EuroPARC Kilde: Wikipedia

11 7/2 2007Lektion 411 Fodnoter omkring Paul Dourish... Må man citere fra Wikipedia? Kender I MIT Press? Kender I Google Scholar ?? – –Paul Dourish Danske Nobelpristagere –Niels K. Jerne: fysiologi/medicin 1984 –Jens Chr. Skou: kemi 1997 Jerne Skou

12 7/2 2007Lektion 412 Fundamentale spørgsmål til bogen ? Relevansen, bæredygtigheden, rimeligheden af hans forehavende? Nogen andre eller bedre forslag? Hvorfor starter han med History of Interaction ?

13 7/2 2007Lektion 413 Hvordan er Dourish's bog disponeret? 1. History of Interaction (lektion 3: 3. sep.) Interaktionens historie 2. Getting in Touch (lektion 4: 5. sep.) En række "tangible computing" teknologier 3. Social Computing (lektion 6: 12. sep.) Social Computing - eksempler 4. "Being-in-the-World": Embodied Interaction (lektion 21: 12. nov.) Hvordan fænomenologien kan ses som et grundlag 5. Foundations (lektion 22: 14. nov.) Mening som grundlag 6. Moving Toward Design (lektion 23: 19. nov) Design-principper 7. Conclusions and Directions (lektion 23: 19. nov.) Perspektiver

14 7/2 2007Lektion 414 Oversigt Indledning: om bogen Forordet Kapitel 1 Afrunding Bannon: From Human Factors to Human Actors

15 7/2 2007Lektion 415 Preface Filosofi og computer science ? Datalogi er baseret på før-1930-filosofi Datalogisk praksis reducerer høj-niveau adfærd til lav-niveau, mekaniske forklaringer, formaliserer dem gennem ren videnskabelig rationalitet Datalogi afslører herved sin historie som en positivistisk, reduktionistisk tradition Kognitionsvidenskab er baseret på en stiv Cartesiansk adskillelse mellem sind og materie, mellem tænkning og handling Under angreb siden 1930'erne: Heidegger og Wittgenstein –ny position indenfor tænking, sprog og mening –forkaster disembodied rationalitet –erstattes af en model af situerede agenter, der handler og interagerer frit i verden

16 7/2 2007Lektion 416 Preface Måden virkeligheden, mennesker og handling ses "Every piece of software represents an uncountable number of philosophical commitments and perspectives without which it could never be created" (viii) "I will focus here on one particular way these philosophical questions have lately arisen in HCI." The goal is to develop an understanding that explains the relationship between the various elements of the embodied interation approach - and suggest how, when and why embodied interaction works.

17 7/2 2007Lektion 417 Interaktionsdesign-landskabet (Sharp s. 10) Mangler der ligesom ikke noget?

18 7/2 2007Lektion 418 Oversigt Indledning: om bogen Forordet Kapitel 1 Afrunding Bannon: From Human Factors to Human Actors

19 7/2 2007Lektion 419 Dourish kap. 1 overordnet disponering 1. A historical model of interaction –Electrical –Symbolic –Textual –Graphical 2. New models for interactive system design: Tangible and social approaches to computing 3. From tangible and social computing to embodied interaction

20 7/2 2007Lektion 420 Dourish kap. 1 detaljeret disponering 1 History of Interaction (s. 1) 1.1 A historical model of interaction (s. 5) 1.1.1 Electrical (s. 5) 1.1.2 Symbolic (s. 7) 1.1.3 Textual (s. 9) 1.1.4 Graphical (s. 11) Peripheral Attention (s. 11) Pattern Recognition and Spatial Reasoning (s. 12) Information Density (s. 12) Visual Metaphors (s. 13) 1.1.5 Progress (s. 14) 1.2 New Models for Interactive System Design (s. 14) 1.2.1 Tangible and Social Approaches to Computing (s. 15) 1.3 From Tangible and Social Computing to Embodied Interaction (s. 17)

21 7/2 2007Lektion 421 A History of Interaction Hvad er hovedpointen i kapitel 1?

22 7/2 2007Lektion 422 Baggrund Computeres udvikling: Moore's lov –antallet af transistorer pr. arealenhed fordobles hvert 2. år –computerens kapacitet fordobles hver 18. måned We talk about how fast it is changing, but we talk less about the ways in which it is not Many things about computers are not changing at all –Our basic idea about what a computer is, what it does, and how it does it, for instance, have hardly changed for decades –Nor have the difficulties we encounter actually using computers

23 7/2 2007Lektion 423 Baggrund Computeren var en sparsom ressource: effektivitet & økonomi –”Users and operators took great pride in the speed with which they could mount tapes and operate the hardware to minimize the idle time between jobs” (Auslander, 1981: 475). "It gave rise to a model that favors performance over convenience, and places a premium on the computer's time rather than people's time. This model is largely still with us today". (s. 2) På tide at genoverveje denne afvejning - to udviklingstendenser –informations-overload og computerne står stille i 95% af tiden –computeren indlejret i dagligdags brugsgenstande Leder til –nye måde at interagere med computeren –nye måder at begribe interaktion: "beyond HCI & desktop" Sammenhæng Sharp 2 i onsdags: Interaktionstyper

24 7/2 2007Lektion 424 Baggrund "Over the last few years, reasearch into HCI has begun to explore ways to control and interact with a new breed of computer systems" (s. 2) Hvilke, for eksempel? "This book is a contribution to the emerging literature on this new approach to interacting with computers, one I call 'Embodied Interaction' ". "Embodied Interaction is interaction with computer systems that occupy our world, a world of physical and social reality, and that exploit this fact in how they interact with us." (s. 3)

25 7/2 2007Lektion 425 Hvad er embodiment?

26 7/2 2007Lektion 426 Hvad er embodiment? Embodiment (Engelsk-Dansk) ( –legemliggørelse; inkarnation Embodied Interaction - Interaction with computer systems –that occupy the world, a world of physical and social reality, and –that exploit this fact in how they interact with us. Embodiment: Not a property of systems, technologies, or artifacts, it is a property of interaction. It is rooted in the ways in which people (and technologies) participate in the world. (189) Wikipedia –In essence embodiment as an idea binds two worlds of substance and spirit, contrary to a duality (Descartes: "cogito ergo sum"). –Thus body and mind are fused into a single being - the only distinction between matter and person being the way of observing the being.

27 7/2 2007Lektion 427 Afviger fra andre HCI fremstillinger Mere om –interaktion end interfaces –computation end computers –representational power end om Gigabytes and Megahertz –foundational end technical Ikke en bog om design-løsninger eller en "how-to-do-it" "The goal of this foundational exploration is to provide resources to designers, by giving them tools thay can use to understand and analyze their designs." Interaktion i centrum: ikke hvad der gøres, men hvordan det gøres

28 7/2 2007Lektion 428 Den historiske udvikling Kontekst: de historiske evolution af ideerne om interaktionens og HCI teknologien Hvorfor vælger Dourish et historisk perspektiv? Var computeren en evolution eller en revolution ? Fokus på færdigheder (skills) gennem fire interaktionsformer –electrical- textual –symbolic- graphical

29 7/2 2007Lektion 429 Electrical Computeren var ikke en revolution, men en evolution Hvad ser I på billedet? Analog beregningstradition –vejrudsigter –skydetabeller –planlægning af vandledninger –styring af jernbanegods –folketælling Administrativ databehandling baseret på hulkort

30 7/2 2007Lektion 430 Kender i Vannevar Bush: As We May Think? (1945) Differential Analyzer

31 7/2 2007Lektion 431 Electrical: ENIAC 1945

32 7/2 2007Lektion 432 Electrical Plugboard programming - maskinnært Electrodata 101, 1958 Før & efter stored program computer Skills: at bruge maskinen krævede indgående kendskab til dens elektroniske design

33 7/2 2007Lektion 433 Electrical Johnniac 1954

34 7/2 2007Lektion 434 EDSAC programmering Video: Computer Pioneers and Pioneer Computers - herregodt! Om EDSAC fra 1951, hvor Maurice Wilkes taler os igennem løsning af et problem på EDSAC NTSC - fotos EDSAC –Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator –verdens første praktisk anvendelige stored program elektroniske computer –bygget i Cambridge, i brug i 1951

35 7/2 2007Lektion 435 EDSAC programmering Matematikeren skriver sit problem op

36 7/2 2007Lektion 436 EDSAC programmering... for en lytttende ekspertgruppe

37 7/2 2007Lektion 437 EDSAC programmering Subrutiner fra biblioteket skrives først

38 7/2 2007Lektion 438 EDSAC programmering.... hov - der er en mere effektiv subrutine for exponential-funktionen

39 7/2 2007Lektion 439 EDSAC programmering... det rettes, sådan

40 7/2 2007Lektion 440 EDSAC programmering ekspertgruppen arbejder

41 7/2 2007Lektion 441 EDSAC programmering hvorefter programmøren går igang

42 7/2 2007Lektion 442 EDSAC programmering med hyppige opslag i subrutine-biblioteket

43 7/2 2007Lektion 443 EDSAC programmering programmet er skrevet færdig

44 7/2 2007Lektion 444 EDSAC programmering programmet checkes

45 7/2 2007Lektion 445 EDSAC programmering programmet hulles

46 7/2 2007Lektion 446 EDSAC programmering en subrutine på strimmel hentes fra biblioteket i skuffen

47 7/2 2007Lektion 447 EDSAC programmering som kopieres ind på hulstrimlen med programmet

48 7/2 2007Lektion 448 EDSAC programmering det hele hulles to gange og de to strimler sammenlignes i en komparator

49 7/2 2007Lektion 449 EDSAC programmering OK - klar til job-køen

50 7/2 2007Lektion 450 EDSAC programmering operatøren henter jobbet

51 7/2 2007Lektion 451 EDSAC programmering og indlæser programmet

52 7/2 2007Lektion 452 EDSAC programmering programmet kører og lagerets indhold visualiseres dynamisk

53 7/2 2007Lektion 453 EDSAC programmering her kommer output - printet direkte

54 7/2 2007Lektion 454 EDSAC programmering programmøren henter det i ud-køen

55 7/2 2007Lektion 455 EDSAC programmering det ser fornuftigt ud....

56 7/2 2007Lektion 456 EDSAC programmering matematikeren ser på det - OK !

57 7/2 2007Lektion 457 EDSAC programmering en anden programmør henter sit output

58 7/2 2007Lektion 458 EDSAC programmering..... det ser ikke så godt ud....

59 7/2 2007Lektion 459 EDSAC programmering.... nej det gør det ikke !

60 7/2 2007Lektion 460 Symbolic Symbolske interaktionsformer Programmering –væk fra maskine –højere abstraktionsniveau –maskinkode a9 62 82 2c –assemblersprog mov (r1+), r2 –højniveausprog

61 7/2 2007Lektion 461 Symbolic - FORTRAN FORTRAN: FORmula TRANslating, IBM, 1956, bruges idag integer nx, s, e double precision a(0:nx+1, s-1:e+1) parameter pi = 3.14159265 c if (s.eq. 1) then do 30 i=0,nx+1 a(i,0) = sin(pi*i/(nx+1)) b(i,0) = sin(pi*i/(nx+1)) 30 continue


63 7/2 2007Lektion 463 Symbolic Skills: Vi er skrappe til forskellige former for symbolsk interaktion: sprog og ikke-sproglig kommunikation Ikoner, trafiksignaler, flag, kort,... Færdigheder –sprog og kommunikation –visuelle, kognitive –mere naturlig og intuitiv Fejlfinding i maskinkode, assembler og højniveausprog –maskinkode a9 62 82 2c –assemblersprog mov (r1+), r2 –højniveau MOVE SPACES TO D-STORE-CODE.

64 7/2 2007Lektion 464 Textual Sproglige færdigheder - skrevet text og interaktion Batch-systemer –hulkort/strimmel, afleverede sit job ved skranke, operatør kørte det, print 1/1 - 1 dag efter Time-sharing systemer med terminaler –conversational, dialogue, interactive –man-computer communication / systems –man-machine communication DOS xcopy h:\*.* /a /e Copying everything on the H drive to the current drive (implicit), with the archive attribute set (/a) and direc- tories and subdirectories, including empty ones (/e) Skills: interaktion og dialog

65 7/2 2007Lektion 465 Graphical Velkendt Flere færdigheder anvendes –perifer opmærksomhed –mønstergenkeldelse og rumlig tænkning –informationstæthed –visuelle metaforer Rum og billeder

66 7/2 2007Lektion 466 New models for interaction Xerox Star først med vinduer, menuer og mus Apple Lisa 1983 Apple Macintosh 1984 får fodfæste på markedet http://www. uriahcarpenter. info/1984.html 1984.html En "sea change" i interaktionen med computeren Stort set uændret idag men nye former

67 7/2 2007Lektion 467 Tangible and social computing Tangible: tre tendenser –Computere i dagligdags genstande –Dagligdags ting "forøges/forstærkes" med computeren –Direkte fysisk interface istf. det grafiske - få computeren væk Social computing –increasing attempts to incorporate understandings of the social world into interactive systems –sociologiske, antropologiske og etnografiske tilgange –"single-user" paradigmet kan "forøges/forstærkes" med information om andre og omgivelserne

68 7/2 2007Lektion 468 To Embodied Interaction My reason for viewing the history of interaction as a gradual expansion of human skills and abilities that can be incorporated into interacting with computers is that I beleive that it provides a valuable perspective on activities such as tangible and social computing. In particular, it shows that these two areas draw on the same set of skills and abilities. Tangible and social computing are arguably aspects of one and the same reserach program. This is the hypothesis that this book sets out to explore. The argument comes in four parts –Tangible and social computing have a common basis –Embodiment is the core element –Embodiment is not new, can be informed by phenomenology –Phenomenology can help provide a foundation for embodied interaction

69 7/2 2007Lektion 469 1. Tangible and social computing have a common basis Draws on the way the everyday world works or - perhaps more accurately - the ways we experience the everyday world... through directly interacting with the world They share and understanding that you cannot separate the individual from the world in which that individual lives and acts.

70 7/2 2007Lektion 470 2. Embodiment is the core element Three arguments –interaction is intimately connected to the setting –turn to consider work activities and artifacts in concrete terms rather than abstract –the artifacts of daily interaction can play many different roles

71 7/2 2007Lektion 471 3. Embodiment not new, informed by phenomenology Embodiment is not a new phenomenon - it plays a special role in a particular school of thought: phenomenology Phenomenology is concerned with how we perceive, experience, and act in the world around us Argue that the separation between mind and matter has no basis in reality Thinking does not occur separately from being and acting "See and understand " rather than "understand and see"

72 7/2 2007Lektion 472 4. Phenomenology: a foundation for embodied interaction Build on the phenomenological understandings to create a foundational approach to embodied interaction. Such a foundation should do two things –Account for the ways tangible and social computing are related to each other and provide a unified model –Inform and support design

73 7/2 2007Lektion 473 Dourish kap. 1 disponering A historical model of interaction –Electrical- Textual –Symbolic- Graphical New models for interactive system design: Tangible and social approaches to computing From tangible and social computing to embodied interaction Human-Computer Interaction Tangible Computing Social Computing Embodied Interaction

74 7/2 2007Lektion 474 Oversigt Indledning: om bogen Forordet Kapitel 1 Afrunding Bannon: From Human Factors to Human Actors

75 7/2 2007Lektion 475 Fordele og ulemper ved bogen ? Tænk på 1-3 gode ting ved Dourish's bog Tænk på 1-3 ting ved Dourish's bog, som kunne være bedre

76 7/2 2007Lektion 476 Fordele og ulemper ved bogen ? Tænk på 1-3 gode ting ved Dourish's bog –Velskrevet og veldisponeret –Klar og forståelig trods højt abstraktionsniveau –Usædvanlig god metakommmunikation –Passende størrelse (ikke 400 sider) Tænk på 1-3 ting ved Dourish's bog, som kunne være bedre –Mere konkret: eksempler, illustrationer, cases –Mere design-orienteret

77 7/2 2007Lektion 477 Ankers spørgsmål Andre måder at se udviklingen i interaktionen end udvikling af færdigheder

78 7/2 2007Lektion 478 Oversigt Indledning: om bogen Forordet Kapitel 1 Afrunding Bannon: From Human Factors to Human Actors

79 7/2 2007Lektion 479 Bogens kontekst Joan Greenbaum and Morten Kyng (eds): Design at Work: Cooperative Deign of Computer Systems. Erlbaum, 1991. HCI's forankring i psykologi, kognitionspsykologi og kognitionsvidenskab blev udfordret af sociologiske og etnografiske tilgange - og fra den skandinaviske tradition.

80 7/2 2007Lektion 480 Hvem er Liam Bannon ? Liam Bannon is Director of the Interaction Design Centre and Professor of Computer Science, University of Limerick, Ireland He is interested in improving the utility, usability, and desireability of the computational artifacts we design He has played a major role in developing CSCW issues in Europe, being a founding editor of the CSCW Journal. More recently, he has become involved in the field of Interaction Design, as an emerging, and distinct interdisciplinary field that has particular pertinence in this age of ubiquitous technology.

81 7/2 2007Lektion 481 Position i landskabet

82 7/2 2007Lektion 482 Hvad er Human Factors (ergonomics) ? "Human Factors is concerned with the role of humans in complex systems, the design of equipment and facilities for human use, and the development of environments for comfort and safety" (Salvendy, 1987) Wikipedia –Simply put, Human Factors involves the study of all aspects of the way humans relate to the world around them, with the aim of improving operational performance, safety, through life costs and/or adoption through improvement in the experience of the end user. –The origin is in the design and use of aircraft during World War II to improve aviation safety –Human Factors practitioners come from a variety of backgrounds predominantly Psychologists (Cognitive, Perceptual, and Experimental) and physiologists. Designers (Industrial, Interaction, and Graphic), Anthropologists, Technical communication and Computer Scientists

83 7/2 2007Lektion 483 Hensigt "I believe that there needs to be a better understanding among researchers, and many system designers too, about the "users" of computer systems and the settings in which they work" (s. 3) "Part of the problem resides in an implicit view of ordinary people which, if surfaced, would seem to treat people as, at worst, idiots who must be shielded from the machine, or at best, as simply sets of elementary processes or "factors" that can be studied in isolation in the laboratory. (s. 3) Although... Human Factors or Ergonomics, has had a long tradition of contributing to computer systems design... it has often neglected vitally important issues such as the underlying values of the people involved and their motivation in the work setting. (s. 3)

84 7/2 2007Lektion 484 Hvad så? "Understanding people as actors in situations, with a set of skills and shared practices based on work experience with others, requires us to seek new ways of understanding the relationship between people, technology, work requirements and organizational constraints in work settings." (s. 3) "This chapter gives some experiences and background on the field of HCI and point out some problems. I suggest some alternative perspectives and directions for more fruitful research on, or rather with, people in work settings that may assist in the design of more usable and useful computer systems." (s. 3)

85 7/2 2007Lektion 485 Perspektiver Replacing Human factors with Human Actors (s. 4) Re-thinking the concept of "Users" (s. 5) Users are not idiots (s. 5) Allow for active users (s. 6)

86 7/2 2007Lektion 486 Bannon: Idiot-proof interactive systems Wassermann, A. I. 1973. The design of idiot-proof interactive systems. Proceedings of the National Computer Conference. ACM, New York. Programs designed to anticipate any possible input and to respond in such a manner as to minimize the chances of system failure while shielding the user from the effects of such a failure. (AHJ, 1980, 40) Anthony Wassermann

87 7/2 2007Lektion 487 Beyond current conceptions of HCI Har vi hørt ordet "beyond" før....... ? From product to process in reserach and design (s. 9) From individuals to groups (s. 9) From the laboratory to the workplace (s. 9) From novices to experts (s. 10) From analysts to design (s. 10) From user-centered to user-involved design (s. 10) From user requirements specifications to iterative prototyping (s. 10)

88 7/2 2007Lektion 488 Summary What is being advocated here is an approach that, while acknowledging tghe contribution that different disciplines can make to the design process, ultimately depends upon the users themselves to articulate their requirements, with the system design team, composed of a variety of specialists, acting in the capacity of consultsnts to the project. Design teams and users must be prepared to acjnowledge each others competencies.. (s. 13) It is in the mutual interaction of these different perspectives, including that of the end users, focused on a particular design project, that good design may emanate." (s. 13).

89 7/2 2007Lektion 489

90 7/2 2007Lektion 490

Download ppt "7/2 2007Lektion 41 History of Interaction Dourish forord og kapitel 1 Bannon (kompendiet s. 3) Anker Helms Jørgensen IT-Universitetet i København Interaktionsdesign."

Lignende præsentationer

Annoncer fra Google