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Hvad nyhedsmedierne gør – og bør

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Præsentationer af emnet: "Hvad nyhedsmedierne gør – og bør"— Præsentationens transcript:

1 Hvad nyhedsmedierne gør – og bør

2 ”Behold! Human beings living in a sort of underground den, which has a mouth open towards the light and reaching all across the den; they have been here from their childhood, and have their legs and necks chained so that they cannot move, and can only see before them; for the chains are arranged in such a manner as to prevent them from turning round their heads. At a distance above and behind them the light of a fire is blazing, and between the fire and the prisoners there is a raised way; and you will see, if you look, a low wall built along the way, like the screen which marionette players have before them, over which they show the puppets. I see, he said. And do you see, I said, men passing along the wall carrying vessels, which appear over the wall; also figures of men and animals, made of wood and stone and various materials; and some of the prisoners, as you would expect, are talking, and some of them are silent? This is a strange image, he said, and they are strange prisoners. Like ourselves, I replied; and they see only their own shadows, or the shadows of one another, which the fire throws on the opposite wall of the cave? True, he said: how could they see anything but the shadows if they were never allowed to move their heads? And of the objects which are being carried in like manner they would see only the shadows? Yes, he said. And if they were able to talk with one another, would they not suppose that they were naming what was actually before them?” The Republic - Plato, Book Seven

3 Biografi - Walter Lippmann (1889 - 1974)
Journalist og redaktør på The New Republic Propagandist under 1. verdenskrig Pressesekretær for Woodrow Wilson Deltager i Versailles-forhandlingerne Klummeskribent, kommentator og forfatter

4 Kerneværker af Walter Lippmann
Drift and Mastery (1914) Public Opinion (1922) The Phantom Public (1927)

5 ”The world that we have to deal with politically is out of reach, out of sight, out of mind. It has to be explored, repor-ted and imagined.” Public Opinion, Walter Lippmann

6 ”The press … has come to be regarded as an organ of direct democracy, charged on a much wider scale, and from day to day, with the function often attributed to the initiative, referendum, and recall. The Court of Public Opinion, open day and night, is to lay down the law for everything all the time. It is not workable. And when you consider the nature of news, it is not even thinkable.” Public Opinion, Walter Lippmann

7 ” … The press is no substitute for institutions
” … The press is no substitute for institutions. It is like the beam of a searchlight that moves restlessly about, bringing one episode and then another out of darkness into vision. Men cannot do the work of the world by this light alone. They cannot govern society by episodes, incidents, and eruptions.” Public Opinion, Walter Lippmann

8 Ideel politisk proces - Walter Lippmann
Experts organize facts for men of action Responsible men of action (politicians) make decisions on behalf of the public Publicity from the press civilizes politicians and Help the public decide who should be ”in” and ”out” in politics

9 ”The manner of presentation is so objective and projective that one finishes the book almost without realizing that it is perhaps the most effective indictment of democracy … ever penned.” John Dewey, anmeldelse i The New Republic

10 ”There is more than a verbal tie between the words common, community, and communication. Men live in a community in virtue of things which they have in common; and communication is the way in which they come to possess things in common." Democracy and education, John Dewey

11 ”There is too much a public, a public too diffused and scat-tered and too intricate in composition. And there are too many publics … and each one of them crosses the others and generates its own group of persons especially affected with little to hold these different publics together in an integrated whole." The Public and its problems, John Dewey

12 For Dewey er det ikke rigtigt, at offentlighedens vitalitet "depends essentially upon freeing and perfecting the pro-cesses of inquiry and of dissemination." I stedet er målet at - "the improvement of the methods and conditions of debate, discussion and persuasion," (1927: 208) hvormed offentlig-heden - eller offentlighederne - kan udveksle holdninger og koordinere handlinger. The Public and its Problems, John Dewey

13 Deliberativ Repræsentativ

14 Passiv Aktiv


16 ”Lad dem frelse verden, der har lyst til det, når vi andre bare får lov til at beskrive den som den ser ud.” - Ernest Hemingway ( )


18 ”Fakta er den mægtigste moralske løftestang.”
- Jacob A. Riis ( )

19 Passiv Aktiv

20 Deliberativ Passiv Aktiv Repræsentativ

21 Nyhedskompasset er et analyseredskab … fortid, nutid og fremtid …
Deliberativ Hyrdehund Redningshund Passiv Aktiv Vagthund Jagthund Repræsentativ … fortid, nutid og fremtid …

22 Deliberativ Passiv Aktiv Repræsentativ
Bør: 71,8 Gør: 48,8 Bør: 59,8 Gør: 39,3 Deliberativ Hyrdehund Redningshund Passiv Aktiv Vagthund Jagthund Repræsentativ Bør: 74,6 Gør: 61,7 Bør: 61,4 Gør: 66,9

23 ? Kompasset er også et aktiveringsredskab ...
Deliberativ ? Hyrdehund Redningshund Passiv Aktiv Vagthund Jagthund Repræsentativ Eksempel: Vold, integration, trafik, arbejdsløshed mv.

24 ? Kompasset er også et aktiveringsredskab ...
Deliberativ ? Hyrdehund Redningshund Passiv Aktiv Vagthund Jagthund Repræsentativ Men kompasset kan (for)styres af kilder udenfor medierne


26 Hvad med politikken, journalistikken, demokratiet … ?
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Politik Politik Politik Presse Presse Publikum Publikum Publikum Hvad med politikken, journalistikken, demokratiet … ?

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