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Simulation og computerspil - 2014 Selv-referentialitet og computerspil Bo Kampmann Walther 20.10.2014.

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1 Simulation og computerspil - 2014 Selv-referentialitet og computerspil Bo Kampmann Walther 20.10.2014

2 Agenda 1] Gadamers spil-begreb (testet op imod ”vores”) ØVELSE 2] Computerspil som selv-referentielle, systemiske, rekursive systemer ØVELSE 3] INDLEDENDE SNAK OM EKSAMENSOPGAVER (”papers”)

3 Hans-Georg Gadamer

4 Gadamers spil-begreb "If we examine how the word "play" is used and concentrate on its so-called metaphorical senses, we find talk of the play of light, the play of the waves, the play of gears and parts of machinery, the interplay of limbs, the play of forces, the play of gnats, even a play on words. In each case what is intended is to- and-fro movement that is not tied to any goal that would bring it to an end. [...] The movement of playing has no goal that brings it to an; rather, it renews itself in constant repetition. The movement backward and forward is obviously so central to the definition of play that it makes no difference who or what performs this movement. The movement of play as such has, as it were, no substrate. It is the game that is played - it is irrelevant whether or not there is a subjct who plays it. The play is the movement as such." (TM, p.103).

5 Ontologi …? Spil beskriver ikke længere et velafgrænset objekt. Spil beskriver heller ikke et subjekts bevidsthedstilstand i erkendelsesakten. Spil refererer derimod til en bevægelse. – Ikke: Spillet har en ontologisk status, der kan begribes i sig selv – Ikke: Spillet er kun spil, når det spilles – Men: spillet spiller sig – (en slags flydende besjæling)

6 Øvelse … No goal …? Taler Gadamer om ”play” eller ”games” (playing eller gaming)? Paidea eller ludus …?

7 Regel-baserede interaktionssystemer Drawing on economic game theory we can define games as complex, rule- based interaction systems consisting of three key mechanisms: – absolute rules, – contingent strategies, and – possible interaction patterns.

8 definitioner

9 Parameter space The formal organization of games can be regarded as a parameter space. In this space the current state of the game counts as a point and ultimately a dimension in the parameter space. A played game has therefore n possible state dimensions. In Tic-Tac-Toe, for instance, the nine squares constitute the game’s parameter space and thus the possibility domain for the arrangement of the board pieces. The rules of the game define the possible edges in the space connecting states. Rules define the possible game whereas a particular game is a path through the state space.

10 rekursivitet Computerized ‘game’ recursivity implies an automatic, cybernetic process in which only a finite number of input events are accepted as base for possible output functions. The dynamic system therefore presupposes a trivial relation between the initial possibility space and the information (or output) shown to the player in a given game state. Hermeneutic ‘fiction’ recursivity implies a non-trivial process in which an infinite number of input events (that together form the possibility space of referentiality) can be potentially linked to a likewise infinite number of output functions (that are the self- referential signs).

11 Mellem rules og player

12 Recursivity – feed back loop memory system

13 Interaction patterns // system

14 Selv-referentialitet ?? All digital games are naturally cybernetic, self- referential systems (Kücklich 2003), whereas all non-digital media, including fiction and cinema, is basically semantic, referential systems that can be perceived as self-referential entities.

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