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Forudsætninger for brugen af den tilgængelige information Informationen, der ligger til grund for denne præsentation, er udgivet til fri afbenyttelse i.

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Præsentationer af emnet: "Forudsætninger for brugen af den tilgængelige information Informationen, der ligger til grund for denne præsentation, er udgivet til fri afbenyttelse i."— Præsentationens transcript:

1 Forudsætninger for brugen af den tilgængelige information Informationen, der ligger til grund for denne præsentation, er udgivet til fri afbenyttelse i forbindelse med videnformidling om dansk frøarbejde. Eneste betingelse er, at der bliver refereret til Danseed. Ligeledes må de mange billeder benyttes til videnformidling, forudsat at de bliver krediteret til angivne ophavsmænd eller til Danseed hvis ingen anden kilde er angivet. Med venlig hilsen Danseed – Center for Frøvidenskab

2 Indholdsfortegnelse  Kort introduktion (THO)  Korn (JRJ)  Markfrø (BIO)  Havefrø (BIO)  Træfrø (MJ)  Roefrø (HC)  Organisering (THO)  Uddannelse (CHOL)  Frøkontrol (ULBM)  Sameksistens (BIO)  Nordisk Genbank (CA)  Udviklingslande (OSL)  Teknologi (BIO)  Danske aktører (SVTN)

3 Introduktion Thomas Holst Dansk Landbrug, Frøsektionen

4 Under udarbejdelse Thomas Holst, Plantedirektoratet

5 Korn Johannes Ravn Jørgensen Aarhus Universitet Cerealienetværket http://www.cernet.dk/http://www.cernet.dk/

6 Hvede anvendelse - global  Hvede er primært anvendt til human ernæring  Hvede kvalitet  Udbytte  Forarbejdningsegnethed  ensartethed, farve, udseende, kemisk sammensætning Johannes Ravn Jørgensen, DJF, Flakkebjerg

7 Rug anvendelse - global  Rug er som brødkorn kun overgået af hvede i betydning, og det vigtigste brødkorn i Skandinavien og Østeuropa  Uden for Europa er rug hovedsageligt brugt til fodder  En lille del anvendes til destillering Johannes Ravn Jørgensen, DJF, Flakkebjerg

8 Byg anvendelse - global  Den primære udnyttelse af byg er til:  foder for husdyr, især svin  til maltning og brygning ved fremstilling af øl og ved destillation til whisky  Til human ernæring Johannes Ravn Jørgensen, DJF, Flakkebjerg

9 Havre anvendelse - global  En lille del af havre- produktionen formales til produkter der indgår i den humane diæt:  havremel til grød og havrekager  valset havre til grød,mel, babymad og til fremstilling af morgemadsprodukter  Hovedparten anvendes dog til foder, traditionelt heste. Johannes Ravn Jørgensen, DJF, Flakkebjerg

10 Produktion og anvendelse af korn i Danmark Johannes Ravn Jørgensen, DJF, Flakkebjerg

11 Anvendelse af korn i Danmark Johannes Ravn Jørgensen, DJF, Flakkebjerg

12 Kvalitetsanalyser i korn Maltbyg  Spireenergi  Protein  Fusarium  Kernestørrelse Foder  Energi  Stivelse  Protein  Mykotoxiner Brødhvede  Meludbytte  Protein/gluten  Faldtal  Mykotoxiner Johannes Ravn Jørgensen, DJF, Flakkebjerg

13 Kornkvalitet Kemiske egenskaber  Kemiske indholdsstoffer  Uønskede sporstoffer  Proces kvalitet Fysiske egenskaber  Sundhed  Renhed  Skader  Vitalitet Johannes Ravn Jørgensen, DJF, Flakkebjerg

14 Kornkvalitet fysiske og kemiske egenskaber Kvalitet Fysiske egenskaber Sundhed Tilstand Rumvægt Kerne- størrelse Farve Vand- indhold Skader Varme skade Insekt- skader Spiring Misfarvning Umodent korn Knækkede kerner Renhed Urenheder Fremmed- legemer Frø af andre arter Sorts- renhed Ekskre- menter Mider / skadedyr Meldrøjer Uønskede sporstoffer Myko- toxiner Pesticider Ukendte Kemiske egenskaber Protein Vand Stivelse Olie Fiber Mineraler Aminosyrer Gluten Johannes Ravn Jørgensen, DJF, Flakkebjerg

15 Markfrø Birte Boelt Aarhus Universitet Det regionale vækstmiljø Frøvækst Øst http://www.froevaekst.dk/ Det regionale teknologicenter Seedland http://www.seedland.dk/

16 Birte Boelt, DJF, Flakkebjerg Under udarbejdelse

17 Havefrø Birte Boelt Aarhus Universitet Det regionale vækstmiljø Frøvækst Øst http://www.froevaekst.dk/ Det regionale teknologicenter Seedland http://www.seedland.dk/

18 Grass seed production area The Danish Seed Council Birte Boelt, DJF, Flakkebjerg

19 Production area EU-25 The Danish Seed Council Birte Boelt, DJF, Flakkebjerg

20 Species in production in Denmark Main species Perennial ryegrass Red fescue Kentucky bluegrass Others Tall Fescue Cocksfoot Italian ryegrass Hybrid ryegrass Meadow Fescue Timothy Bentgrass Birte Boelt, DJF, Flakkebjerg

21 Danish production area The Danish Seed Council Birte Boelt, DJF, Flakkebjerg

22 Restrictions on pesticide use  Tax on pesticides  Restrictions on a national level  No specific restrictions at farm level  Registered pesticides  Many pesticides are not registered anymore  Few new products  Off label use Birte Boelt, DJF, Flakkebjerg

23 Registered pesticides  Many pesticides are not registered anymore  Few new products  Off label use Birte Boelt, DJF, Flakkebjerg

24 Restrictions on nitrogen use  Crop standard  10-15% below economic optimal rate  Total amount of Nitrogen per farm per year  Nitrogen budgets Birte Boelt, DJF, Flakkebjerg

25 Establishment Light and space especially for slow growing species Birte Boelt, DJF, Flakkebjerg

26 Flowering 6 tillers 2-4 leaves Control 25 50 100 200 g/ha Screening of Pesticides Solvejg K. Mathiassen, DJF, Flakkebjerg

27 Spinach seed production - more than 70% of world production Birte Boelt, DJF, Flakkebjerg

28 Vegetable and flower seed Birte Boelt, DJF, Flakkebjerg

29 Seed tecnology Image analysis Birte Boelt, DJF, Flakkebjerg

30 Træfrø Martin Jensen Aarhus Universitet

31 Under udarbejdelse Martin Jensen, Aarhus Universitet

32 Roefrø ????

33 Under udarbejdelse ?, ?

34 Organisering af markfrøbranchen Thomas Holst Dansk Landbrug, Frøsektionen

35 Aktører i den danske frøbranche  4.000 frøavlere  Markfrøfirmaer m. kontraktavl  2 danske  1 hollandsk  Dansk Planteforædling A/S  Dansk Landbrug (Frøsektionen)  Forskning og forsøg  Forskningsprogram frøavl  AU DJF, Frøafgiftsfonden, DFFE innovationsloven  Projekter finansieret direkte af Frøafgiftsfonden  Dansk Landbrugsrådgivning, Landscentret  AU DJF  KU LIFE Thomas Holst, Plantedirektoratet

36 Uddannelse Christian Olsen Selandia, CEU

37 The Danish education system http://www.studyindenmark.dk Primary and lower secondary school **) After schoolstart 7 years old. **) Christian Olsen, Selandia, Slagelse

38 Vocationel training (Erhvervsuddannelser) Vocationel training (Erhvervsuddannelser) Diploma programmes (Kort videregående uddannelser) Diploma programmes (Kort videregående uddannelser) Higher educations (Universitetsuddannelser) Higher educations (Universitetsuddannelser) Jordbrugsmaskinfører Faglært landmand Jordbrugsassistent Futher educations Grønt bevis Grønt diplom Agrarøkonom AMU-kurser AP graduate in Agricultural Science (Jordbrugsteknolog – landbrug) BSc in natural resources (Naturressourcer) MSc in Agricultural Science (Agronom) PhD Upper secundary education (Gymnasium) Upper secundary education (Gymnasium) Links: http://www.ug.dk/Internationalt.aspxhttp://www.ug.dk/Internationalt.aspx / http://www.studyindenmark.dk/http://www.studyindenmark.dk/ Education in Agriculture Christian Olsen, Selandia, Slagelse

39 Frøkontrol Ulla Blicher-Mathiesen Plantedirektoratet

40 E. Møller-Holst Seed testing since 1871 Ulla Blicher-Mathiesen, Plantedirektoratet

41 www.danseed.dk/training Training Ulla Blicher-Mathiesen, Plantedirektoratet

42 Expert assistance Ulla Blicher-Mathiesen, Plantedirektoratet

43 Authorisation Ulla Blicher-Mathiesen, Plantedirektoratet

44 Sameksistens Birte Boelt Aarhus Universitet

45 Sameksistens / Coexistence Denmark first EU country to make rules on coexistence between genetically modified, conventional and organic crops Birte Boelt, DJF, Flakkebjerg

46 The Danish model Coexistence  Three groups appointed  The expert group (scientific analysis)  The legal group (liability)  The contact group (stakeholders) Scientific report Discussions Birte Boelt, DJF, Flakkebjerg

47 "Act on the Growing etc. of Genetically Modified Crops"  Danish Act No. 436 of 9 June 2004  http://www.fvm.dk/fvm_uk http://www.fvm.dk/fvm_uk  Ministerial order 31 March, 2005  Revision ? March 2008  - applies to commercial growing, handling, sale and transport of genetically modified crops as far as the first buyer Birte Boelt, DJF, Flakkebjerg

48 The Act implies rules for  Control measures  isolation distance, cropping intervals, cleaning of farm equipment, handling and storage facilities  Education and certification  Information / communication  Liability and compensation Birte Boelt, DJF, Flakkebjerg

49 Nordic Gene Bank Christian Andreasen Københavns Universitet

50  A presentation … Utilizing Gene Banks today; - Key words: Focus & Diversification Nordic Gene Bank

51  Who we are…  Material  Documentation  International collaboration  Utilization  Global Seed Vault - Svalbard

52 What we do… Collect, Secure - and Use  Conserve and document genetic variation in Nordic material from plant species useful for agriculture and horticulture.  Make genetic resources and allied information available for plant breeding, research and any other bona fide use. Nordic Gene Bank

53 What we do... - Mandate The Nordic Gene Bank (NGB), an institution which  Reports to the Nordic Council of Ministers  Is a centre for the conservation and utilization of plant genetic resources in the Nordic countries  Has mandate to conserve and document the genetic variation in Nordic material from plant species useful for agriculture and horticulture  Is to make stored material available for plant breeding, research and any other bona fide use  Is to foster rational co-operation between the Nordic countries in their efforts to use plant genetic resources for plant breeding and plant breeding research  Is to participate in international co-operation in the conservation  and use of plant genetic resources.

54 Nordic Gene Bank Activities focused on  Contribute to a sustainable use of plant genetic resources  Conservation and documentation of Plant genetic resources from or of relevance for the Nordic Region - cultivated species  Knowledge transfer by participating in research and education in the Nordic Countries and elsewhere  NGB surveys international trends scientifically and politically aiming at influencing the international agenda and to advice National authorities on matters concerning Plant Genetic Resources

55 Nordic Gene Bank How we are… organized - structure NB: Reorganization undergoing:  From 1st Jan. 2008: NORDGEN  Will include:  Nordic Gene Bank  Nordic Gene Bank Farm Animals  Nordic Forestry Seed and Plant Counsel  Mandate: Biodiversity – genetic resources

56 Nordic Gene Bank How we are… organized - structure “Internal”:  Staff - 25 persons  4 Departments  Seed Store  Biology Department, (Agriculture & Horticulture) incl. molecular and in vitro Lab  IT- and Documentation Unit  Administrative Team

57 Nordic Gene Bank How we are… organized - structure “External”: Working Groups - with external experts representing scientific community, plant breeders and other relevant partners for the Gene Bank  Cereals  Fruit and Berries  Potatoes (ad hoc)  Forage Crops  Vegetables  Oil Plants (ad hoc)  Spicers and medicinal plants (project group)

58 Nordic Gene Bank  Based on the principle that gene banking should be:  Inexpensive and durable  Basically available for any national and regional program at reasonable cost  Not require:  much advanced planning in terms of a large storage facility  huge initial investments to get started.

59 Nordic Gene Bank  Partners:  Working Groups!!!!  National programs!!!!  Other gene banks  Universities & research institutions  Scientific projects  Breeding companies  Government departments and authorities  Museums  Botanic gardens & parks  Schools & education centers  Hobby growers / Associations  ”NGO’s” - networks  etc.

60 Nordic Gene Bank Conservation  Ex situ(off-site conservation)  seed gene bank  field gene bank  in vitro  Cryo-preservation  In situ(on-site conservation)  on farm  protected natural habitats / wild parks  wild habitat

61 Nordic Gene Bank Ex situ seed bank  Active Collection (Alnarp, Sweden)  Distribution, characterisation, multiplication, germination tests  Base Collection (Årslev, Denmark)  Long term storage, rejuvenation  Safety Collection (Svalbard, Norway)  Duplication of base collection samples

62 Nordic Gene Bank  Material  Primary collections:  Cereals 17532  Forage5067  Fruits & berries153  Potato557  Oil crops1554  Vegetables6446  Industrial crops156  Landscape14  Forest trees16  Spices and medicinal plants (in process)app. 300  Special collections:  Lundquist mutant collection9760  MacKey NIL-collection(in process)400  Other special cereal collections1321  New special collections (in process) app. 5000  MIT – future/soon?  Varieties? - Hybrid parents? - GMO’s? - Research material?

63 Nordic Gene Bank International activities  Expert consultation, development of regional PGR programs  SIDA based programs:  SADC - since 1989  Baltic region  Eastern Africa – EAPGREN, since 2006  Balkan region – SEEDNet, since 2004  CAC, from 2007  IT +:  GBIF - Global Biodiversity Information Facility  TDWG – Biodiversity Information Standards  ECPGR, EPGRIS3, EURISCO  BioCASE - Biological Collection Access Service for Europe  GCP – Generation Challenge Program, on behalf of Bioversity  Crop Wild Relatives – Global Portal, on behalf of Bioversity  ABCD 2.06 - Access to Biological Collection Data (Berlin Botanical Garden)  ALIS - Global Accession Level Information System (in process), together with Bioversity  Safety Storage:  Svalbard Global Seed Vault (Seed distributions, international, conferences, workshops, seminars)

64 Udviklingslande Ole Søgaard Lund Københavns Universitet

65 Danish Seed Health Centre for Developing Countries The centre works for reduction of poverty through improvement of seed quality and seed technology in developing countries. Particularly, the centre has expertice in seed-borne pathogens. The centre is part of Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of LIFE Sciences, University of Copenhagen. http://www.dshc.life.ku.dk/

66 Teknologi Birte Boelt Aarhus Universitet

67 Under udarbejdelse Thomas Holst, Plantedirektoratet

68 Danske aktører Svend Tveden-Nyborg Aarhus Universitet

69 Under udarbejdelse Svend Tveden-Nyborg, Aarhus Universitet


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