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Henry Jenkins Convergence Culture - introduction

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1 Henry Jenkins Convergence Culture - introduction

2 Henry Jenkins Convergence Culture - introduction
Convergence Culture – handler om relationen mellem tre koncepter: mediekonvergens (media convergence) deltagelseskultur (participatory culture) kollektiv intelligens (collective intelligence) Convergence refers to a process, not an endpoint that is going to happen with enough bandwidth

3 Henry Jenkins Convergence Culture - introduction
Convergence - I: “The flow of content across multiple media platforms, the cooperation between multiple media industries, and the migratory behavior of media audiences ….” (s. 2) “… is a word that manages to describe technological, industrial, cultural, and social changes depending on who’s speaking and what they think they are talking about .” (s.3)

4 Henry Jenkins Convergence Culture - introduction
Convergence - II: “ …occurs within the brains of individual consumers and through their social interactions with others.” (s.3) “ Consumption has become a collective process ….None of us can know everything; each of us knows something; and we can put the pieces together if we pool our resources and combine our skills.”(s.4)

5 Henry Jenkins Convergence Culture - introduction
Convergence - III: “… is both a top-down corporate-driven process and a bottom-up consumer-driven process.” Corporate convergence coexist with grassroots convergence” (s.18) Danske eksempler…..?

6 Henry Jenkins Convergence Culture - introduction
Lisa Gitelman – A model of media in two levels: 1) A medium is a technology that enables communication. (= delivery system) 2) A medium is a set of associated “protocols” or social and cultural practices that have grown up around that technology. Pointe: Delivery technologies come and go, media persist as layers in an ever more complicated information and entertainment stratum. (pt. dødt link)

7 Henry Jenkins Convergence Culture - introduction
The black box fallacy: The notion that all media one day will converge to one black box (“the universal remote”). Reality: Hardware is diverging, content converges. “Old media never die…What dies are simply the tools we use to access media content” Ex. Recorded sound is the medium. CD, mp3 file, 8 track cassettes are delivery technologies.

8 Henry Jenkins Convergence Culture - introduction
Spørgsmål: Hvordan ser jeres samling af delivery teknologier ud?

9 Henry Jenkins Convergence Culture - introduction
3 terms that pushes the media industry towards convergence: Extensions: Expansion of the potential markets by moving content across different delivery systems. (Matrix, Star Wars, Sims, Harry Potter) Synergy: The economic opportunities represented by their ability to own and control all of those manifestations. Franchise: Their coordinated effort to brand and market content under these new conditions.

10 Henry Jenkins Convergence Culture - introduction
Spørgsmål: Hvad betyder relationen mellem de aktive medskabende forbrugere, den stadige strøm af nye adgangsteknologier og de kommercielle interesser fra ophavsretshavere og medievirksomheder for fremtidens medielandskab? Hvilke underholdningsprodukter vil vi se flere af ? Hvilke vil vi se færre af?

11 http://www. youtube. com/watch
(unicorn dream) (ridley scott) Fra wikipedia: Gaff's Origami unicorn from the Director's Cut, perhaps indicating that Deckard's unicorn daydream was an implant and that Deckard is a replicant. Rick Deckard is the anti-hero of Blade Runner, hired to "retire" replicants. The nature of most of the characters is clearly shown, yet Deckard's character is ambiguous, and viewers are left doubtful; aficionados debate this matter. If Deckard is human, then his being spared by Roy and his love for Rachael soften the line between human and replicant, adding conflicting ambivalence to the story. If Deckard is a replicant, the irony is greater. There is a sequence in the Director's Cut version that alters the significance of the origami unicorn that Gaff leaves in Deckard's apartment, suggesting to the viewer (and to Deckard) that Gaff knows about Deckard's dream in the same manner that Deckard knows about Rachael's implanted memories. If the origami unicorn seen in the Director's Cut reveals Deckard as a replicant in the film's end, then the audience's expectations and prejudices are questioned — and, by extension, our humanity. Relevant opinions from those involved: The purpose of this story as I saw it was that in his job of hunting and killing these replicants, Deckard becomes progressively dehumanized. At the same time, the replicants are being perceived as becoming more human. Finally, Deckard must question what he is doing, and really what is the essential difference between him and them? And, to take it one step further, who is he if there is no real difference? —Philip K. Dick [14] Philip K. Dick wrote the character Deckard as a human.[15] Hampton Fancher (original screenwriter) has said that he wrote the character Deckard as a human, but wanted the film to suggest the possibility that he may be a replicant. When asked, "Is Deckard a replicant?", Fancher replied, "No. It wasn't like I had a tricky idea about Deckard that way." [16] During a discussion panel with Ridley Scott to discuss Blade Runner: The Final Cut, Fancher again stated that he believes Deckard is human (saying that "[Ridley Scott's] idea is too complex"), but also repeated that he prefers the film to remain ambiguous: "I like asking the question and I like it to be asked but I think it’s nonsense to answer it. That’s not interesting to me." [17] Ridley Scott stated in an interview in 2002 that he considers Deckard a replicant.[18][19] Harrison Ford considers Deckard to be human. "That was the main area of contention between Ridley and myself at the time," Ford told interviewer Jonathan Ross during a BBC1 Hollywood Greats segment. "I thought the audience deserved one human being on screen that they could establish an emotional relationship with. I thought I had won Ridley's agreement to that, but in fact I think he had a little reservation about that. I think he really wanted to have it both ways."[20] (However, in an interview in Wired magazine in 2007, Ridley again states that he believes Deckard is a replicant, and jokingly says that Harrison Ford may have given up the idea of Deckard being human.)[21] The debate on his nature renewed when the Director's Cut was released with the unicorn sequence. Since the Original Theatrical Version (OV) points to Deckard being human, whereas the Director's Cut (DC) indicates Deckard is a replicant, it may be that Deckard's nature depends on which version one considers authoritative. Others maintain the film is ambiguous. [edit] Human To emphasize similarity by juxtaposition: When Roy Batty saves Rick Deckard, a replicant is saving a human. When Deckard falls in love with Rachael, a human is affectionate towards a non-human. If humans are hunting — and falling in love with — replicants, there is no ambivalence, and therefore, no conflict. If Deckard is a human interacting with replicants, who are behaving very humanly, it renders moot the question of whether there is a resonant difference. It places a few human attributes into relief, so they may be clearly seen. [edit] Replicant Emphasizing Deckard's struggle to find his own identity, and so provoke the audience to feel as he does in their struggle to grasp Deckard's identity, and ultimately to question their understanding of how we can know our humanity is different, and how we can know at all (cf. epistemology). If the audience ignores the answer until the end, and the characters do not know it either, then the story again provokes the audience, and the characters, to ask: What is the difference between being human and being non-human, if I can be either, and I need someone else to tell me which I am?

12 Henry Jenkins Transmedia Storytelling 101 & Searching for the Origami Unicorn
Tværmedial historiefortælling (case: The Matrix): 1. En proces hvor elementer af fiktion systematisk distribueres på flere platforme for at danne en sammenhængende oplevelse. Ingen medier rummer den totale fortælling eller urtekst. (film, spil, MMO, animation, tegneserier, web, dokum.) 2. Reflekterer medievirksomheders stræben efter synergi (Økonomisk incitament, kultfilm). 3. Er bygget op omkring komplekse og fiktive verdener frem for bestemte karakterer/plots.

13 Henry Jenkins Transmedia Storytelling 101 & Searching for the Origami Unicorn
4. Benytter ‘extensions’ (narrative elaboreringer, forlængelser, sidehistorier) via andre medier. 5. Der er flere brugerindgange (‘point of entry’) til historien via forskellige medier. 6. Hver delfortælling er en afrundet og meningsfuld enhed og påvirker samtidig til ‘den store fortælling’ (additive comprehension). 7. Er mest succesfuld når konceptet udtænkes af én forfatter / én institution og som ét samlet projekt pga. koordineringsudfordring med specialister.

14 Henry Jenkins Transmedia Storytelling 101 & Searching for the Origami Unicorn
8. Ideelt æstetisk format til netværkssamfundet. Udnytter den kollektive intelligens og videndeling både for designere og forbrugere. (Brugeren er jæger og samler af inform./clues/cul-de-sacs, quotes trad., quotes nyere) 9. Spreder ikke bare information, men angiver regler og mål som brugeren kan performe i deres eget liv og leg og bygge videre på med egne historier. (co-creation) 10. Efterlader sprækker og huller i historien som brugerne selv fylder ud. (co creation, ex. LOTR)

15 Tokyo game Show 2006


17 Helle Kannik Haastrup Oplevelser på tværs – en tværmedial analyse af relationen mellem tv-serie og web

18 Helle Kannik Haastrup Oplevelser på tværs – en tværmedial analyse af relationen mellem tv-serie og web Trad. tværmedial medianalyse: 1. Intertekstualitet (jf. Roland Barthes) fokus fra tekst til læser - receptionsanalyse. 2. Intertekstualitet (jf. Kristeva) fokus på strukturer i selve teksten - litteraturanalyse. 3. Inter-tekstualitet (jf. Bennett og Woollacotts) fokus på tekstens tranformationer over tid – historisk perspektiv.

19 Helle Kannik Haastrup Oplevelser på tværs – en tværmedial analyse af relationen mellem tv-serie og web John Fiske: 3-deling af det eksterne mediekredsløb: Primær tekst (tv-serie) Sekundær tekst (presse / avisomtale) Tertiær tekst (modtagerens brug af tv-teksten) John G. Cawelti 5 formulaer: Eventyr (adventure), romantik, mysterium, melodrama, den fantastiske (alien being). Berettermodellen / Hollywood-modellen

20 Helle Kannik Haastrup Oplevelser på tværs – en tværmedial analyse af relationen mellem tv-serie og web 1. Relationel intertektualitet. Relationer ml. prim., sekundære og tertiære medietekster. (jf. Fiske) 2. Genre og genre-tranformation. Brug af formulaer og skift fra fx fiktion til fakta. 3. Tematisering. Forskelle i indholdsmæssig vægtning, framing på hhv. tv og web. 4. Omfunktionalisering. Hvordan fiktionens engagement overføres til websitets praksis (ex. som anker-, klub- og katalogfunktion). Case: Desperate housewives web

21 Øvelser Øvelse: Hvordan kan man lave en analyse af et koncept som Paradise Hotel ud fra Haastrups tværmediale analytiske tilgang (s.208)

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