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Kristian E. Stubkjaer Entrepreneurship in research education - Future needs.

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1 Kristian E. Stubkjaer Entrepreneurship in research education - Future needs

2 Founded in 1829 The famous Danish scientist H.C. Ørsted was the first Rector In 2001, the Technical University of Denmark achieved autonomy In 2004 the science and industry park SCION was incorporated into DTU On 1 January 2007, DTU merged with Risø National Laboratory, the Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research, the Danish Institute for Fisheries Research, the Danish National Space Center, and the Danish Transport Research Institute. The new Technical University of Denmark is a broadly founded, business-oriented technological university where research goes hand in hand with education, innovation and advisory functions for government authorities. Technical University of Denmark (DTU)

3 Students: 7000 Students 850 PhD-students (3 years) 600 Exchange students (3-6 months) 200 DTU students in international exchange 900 Participants in supplementary and further education Research: 1833 Research papers in ISI-journals 175 PhD dissertations Innovation: 80 Patent proposals 55 Accepted patent proposals 30 Filed patent applications Staff: (FTE) 550 Faculty members 1050 Senior researchers (permanent contr.) 500 Researchers (non permanent contr.) 1950 Support staff Turnover 415 mill. Euro Facts and Figures 2007

4 Uddrag af ph.d. bekendtgørelsen •§ 1. Ph.d.-uddannelsen er en forskeruddannelse, der har til formål i samspil med den internationale forskningsverden at uddanne forskere på internationalt niveau. Ph.d.- uddannelsen gennemføres hovedsageligt gennem udøvelse af aktivt forskningsarbejde under vejledning. •Stk. 2. Ph.d.-uddannelsen tager sigte på at opfylde nuværende og fremtidige behov for kvalificeret arbejdskraft til forsknings-, udviklings- og undervisningsopgaver i relation til universiteter, andre institutioner, virksomheder og organisationer samt til andre offentlige og private funktioner, hvor der forudsættes et bredt kendskab til forskning. Entrepreneurship not mentioned – but an element we emphasize

5 Fundamental elements for (modern) universities ResearchEducation Innovation Next generation scientists Courses get input from new research Students learn industry's way of thinking, IPR etc. Student projects also a way of creating innovation Life long learning for industry staff Research projects result in new knowledge and products Industry's needs influence research topics

6 In a DTU-context innovation is research based progress – preferably sustainable – at an external partner aiming at value added growth It can happen via common projects with companies (student projects, collaborative projects etc.) or by transfer of IP (know-how, inventions, software). DTU – Collaboration with industry and technology transfer

7 •DTU will have a coherent system of innovation that includes research, education, patenting, licensing, industrial cooperation, company incubation and activities related to science parks •DTU will offer a program of continuing and further education with broad coverage that disseminates the newest insight into the technical and natural sciences to companies professionals and individuals Objectives for innovation

8 Market OldNew Technology Old (known) State of the art Trends and fashion New User/customer driven Technology driven A classification for innovation ’Red ocean’ & incremental innovation. Harley’s for middle- aged men, mechanical watches Smaller mobile phones Radical, disruptive, Blue Ocean. Smarter mobile phones and PCs

9 SCION-DTU A/S Bioneer A/S DTU Inno- vation A/S Cooperation with GTS institutes Seed Capital DFM A/S DTU AFI IPU Væksthus+ Players and relations in Entrepreneurship

10 John Heebøll VÆKSTHUS+ Entrepreneurship is " the process of looking at things in such a way, that possible solutions to problems and perceived needs may evolve in venturing." Saskatchewan Government; Ministry of Learning venture (plural ventures) A risky or daring journey or undertaking. Here: a risky commercial undertaking with an upside - a so-called hockey stick - What is Entrepreneurship ?

11 Can a University make a Difference? •One in four faculty involved in technology venturing • companies founded by graduates and faculty since 1861 •Employees at MIT– companies > •Sales of MIT- companies > $250 Billion/yr (DKK 2005: 285 Billion USD) •If a nation: 24th largest in the world MIT, Cambridge, Boston Why is Entrepreneurship important? John Heebøll VÆKSTHUS+

12 Does it matter what a university does? Technical University of Denmark Why is Entrepreneurship important? John Heebøll VÆKSTHUS+

13 * 10 opfindelser er i 2 mdr. perioden ** Registreres i det år, opfindelsen blev anmeldt ***Der er indgivet 135 patentansøgninger for DTU opfindelser (heraf 14 i fællesskab med andre institutioner/ selskaber), 54 er senere tilbagegivet til opfinderne, 14 patentansøgninger er indgivet af andre selskaber under samarbejdsaftaler **** 13 opfindelser, solgt inden patentansøgning var indgivet, ville også være blevet patentansøgt af DTU Patentportefølje: 9 udstedte patenter DTU opfindelser 31. december Totalt Modtagne anmeldelser *275 Overtaget Efterfølgende tilbagegivet opfinderne ** Solgt til selskaber **** Licens til selskaber Solgt til Start-up selskaber **** Licens til Start-up Ret til fremtidige opfindelser til Start- up Indgivne patent- ansøgninger ***

14 * Total number of patent ideas number with ph.d. students involved Contribution of PhD students to inventions Half with PhD students PhD students represent a huge potential

15 DTU cases.

16 Variety of PhD programs and financing •DTU stipends •Co-financing via research schools (3x1/3) –Industry participation – typically with co- supervision •Industrial PhD-program –Industry employment – co-supervision •Research councils •EEC research programs •Industry (part or complete financing) •Innovation-PhD (5 students – trial started in 2004)

17 How do we encourage PhD entrepreneurship? • Applicants have to state innovative aspects of proposed study • General introduction on how to handle IPR • Elective entrepreneurship courses are available General (PhD as an employee) • DTU encourages employees/students to consider starting new companies • Departments are dedicated to further innovation by supporting company formation • Knowledge based entrepreneurs have access to facilities, consultancy and (pre-seed) capital • DTU has established paradigms for transferring IPR to start-up companies

18 Courses addressing patenting Informatics and Mathematical Modelling •ITMAN Graduate School Seminars BioCentrum-DTU •Research and Development •Pharmaceutical Technology •Bioinformatics and Gene Discovery •FOOD Summer School: FOOD - a matter of life and death Department of Chemical Engineering •Chemical and Biochemical Product Design1 •Design and test your own product ideas Ørsted DTU • Biomedical product development Department of Mechanical Engineering •Innovation in Product Development Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management •Advanced Surface Technology • Business Law for engineers •Knowledge based Entrepreneurship •Technology, economics, management and organisation •Study Division •Information Retrieval

19 Given by VÆKSTHUS+ Ph.D. Course Knowledge based Entrepreneurship •First time: 2005 •5 ECTS, 100 – 150 hours •See •Only precondition: > 10 students sign up •Takes 8 – 9 weeks, lectures, 6 afternoons •30 students attended in spring 2007 Entrepreneurship course for PhD students

20 42435 Knowledge based Entrepreneurship Enable students to: •Identify business opportunities •Develop business ideas (Opportunity driven creativity) •Develop business models •Analyse markets for technological products and services •Set up questionaires and inverview customers •Analyze customer value proposition •Plan the establishment of a company (Business planning) •Determine capital requirements •Establish cash flow projection •Establish budgets on profit/loss, assets/liabilities •Calculate an equity investment •Specify management competence profiles Clayton M. Christensen in ’Innovators Dilemma’: Markets that Don’t Exist Can’t Be Analyzed “Hi All I just finished this year’s version of the DTU course ‘Knowledge based entrepreneurship’ and I am convinced that this is the course, of all courses undertaken so far, that will have the biggest impact on my future.” Jeppe

21 Our Innovation-PhD trial Started in 2004 with •Lars Henning (Rindorf) •Sarah (Ruepp) •Troels (Christensen) •Lars Tønnes (Jakobsen) •Niels (Bech) Each presented an idea suitable for PhD study + product development All 5 expected to finish later in 2007!

22 What is an Innovation-PhD? •Standard DTU PhD study, plus: –Insights into innovative and economic aspects of research & development and IPR –Writing of a business plan •Criteria of success: –Clarification of the timeframe for commercial introduction of the investigated area –Company start-up –Transfer of technology (e.g. a patent) –Introduction of a product Sarah Ruepp COM-DTU

23 Niels’ idea: Flash pyrolysis of straw

24 Straw for energy •Increasing interest in straw as energy •130 MMton straw in EU •30 to 50 % available •Baled-straw has low energy density •Transport •>75% related to logistics Introduction > Flash Pyrolysis > Pyrolyzer > Products > PCR > Results > Conclusions 24/12 N. BECH, 15 th European Biomass Conference,

25 Bench Pyrolysis Centrifuge •Development of a reactor system for conversion of straw to high density bio-oil or bio-slurry in the field

26 The Pyrolyzer •Resolve dilemma •Eliminate baling, handling, and transport of straw •Improve farmer’s financial incentive Introduction > Flash Pyrolysis > Pyrolyzer > Products > PCR > Results > Conclusions 26/12 Bech et al. WO 2006/ N. BECH, 15 th European Biomass Conference,

27 Lars’ idea: Crystal fiber for detection of bio molecules •Fluoresces •Evanescent wave sensing •DNA og proteins Jesper B. Jensen et al. (2004) Optics Letters 29: Jesper Bo Jensen et al. (2005) Optics Express 15:5883 Lars Rindorf et al. (2006) Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (accepteret)

28 Troels’ idea: Lab-on-a-chip sample pretreatment

29 Sarah’s idea: Network Survivability •Making optical networks resilient to failures in a dynamic way (restoration) •Developing algorithms and methods to achieve efficient restoration, •Evaluating the possibility of applying network restoration techniques in today’s and near-future networks, possibly patenting some of the findings, developing a software product Network failures affect our society, and should hence be avoided or rapidly recovered from through smart network design and efficient recovery mechanisms.

30 Lars T’s idea: Digital control of switching power converters Digital power management can reduce power consumption in processor units and other equipment by controlling the voltage as a function of processor load

31 Pros and Cons of an Innovation PhD Sarah’s view Pros: -Ones research work may be directly applied in a new product or company, which is very motivating -Chance to learn about the economic aspects of research -Coaching by entrepreneur experts (i.e. DTU Innovation) -Scientific curriculum can be extended with courses related to entrepreneurship, IPR, business economy, etc., which gives a broader scope and understanding -Focus on potentially patentable ideas from the start of the PhD study Cons and Challenges: -Extended workload (the ”innovation part” comes as surplus to standard PhD work) -Difficulty to participate in industrial collaborations due to potential IPR issues -Not being able to research ”freely”, all work should be related to potential product

32 PhD education: •Focus should always be on high level research •Continue and improve information on entrepreneurship •Make courses on entrepreneurship mandatory? •More Innovation-PhD’s? Important that the university environment in general is entrepreneurial and supports innovative efforts Conclusions Einstein: Not everything that counts can be counted Not everything that can be counted counts

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34 Entrepreneurkursus Faglig orientering Tekniske målområder defineres af interessefelterne for institutterne COM, Ørsted og MIC. Kommercialisering Fokus på etablering, udvikling og salg af virksomhed i samarbejde med investorer og strategiske partnere. Læringsmetodik Forelæsninger, cases, projektarbejde i grupper på 2 – 4 deltagere. Evaluering Præsentation af forretningsplan Merit 5 point Placering Forelæsninger: 5 eftermiddage à 3 timer. 1 forelæsningsdag per uge. Kick-off, tirsdag 5. april klokken Projektarbejde: 2 måneder fra kick-off med vejledning 1X per uge efter aftale. Evaluering: tirsdag 31. maj. Fagligt indhold • Entrepreneurskab og erfaringslære • Forretningsidéer og forretningsmodeller • Erhvervsjura: immaterialret og selskabsret for videnbaserede iværksættere • Finansiering: kapitaltyper, finansieringsmodeller, pre-seed og early stage investorer • Afsætningsøkonomi: Michael Porters markedsmodel, research, analyse, markedsføring • Erhvervsøkonomi: grundlæggende virksomhedsøkonomi, budgettering • Forretningsplanlægning Cases (tentativt) • Alight (John E. Østergaard) • MMPhotons (Bonni Kryger) • Nanomask (Theodor Nielsen) • Image Metrology (Jan Friis Jørgensen) Vejledning • John Heebøll • Eksterne parter efter nærmere aftale.

35 •The entrepreneur has an enthusiastic vision, the driving force of an enterprise. •The entrepreneur's vision is usually supported by an interlocked collection of specific ideas not available to the marketplace. •The overall blueprint to realize the vision is clear, however details may be incomplete, flexible, and evolving. •The entrepreneur promotes the vision with enthusiastic passion. •With persistence and determination, the entrepreneur develops strategies to change the vision into reality. •The entrepreneur takes the initial responsibility to cause a vision to become a success. •Entrepreneurs take prudent risks. They assess costs, market/customer needs and persuade others to join and help. •An entrepreneur is usually a positive thinker and a decision maker.

36 Entrepreneurkursus, PhD-niveau KURSUSBESKRIVELSE Målsætning Kursusdeltager skal udvikle grundlæggende og praktisk anvendelige kompetencer indenfor forretningsmæssig nyttiggørelse af avanceret teknisk viden, teknologi og forskningsresultater. Resultatet af kursusdeltagelsen er en grundlæggende forretningsplan, som præsenteres af projektgruppen (2-4 deltagere) for faglærer og censor, ultimo maj.

37 DTU framework for company formation • DTU encourages employees and students to consider starting up new companies • Departments are dedicated to further innovation by supporting company formation • Knowledge based entrepreneurs have access to facilities, consultancy and (pre-seed) capital • DTU has established paradigms for transferring IPR to start-up companies • Elective entrepreneurship courses are availble to m.sc. and ph.d. students • Study line in Design & Innovation

38 Technology Human resources New products & services Patents & licences New enterprises Facilities Capital Many Factors

39 ITMAN Graduate School Seminars •The aim of this course is to give a broad introduction to a series of non-technical-scientific subjects which are vital for the PhD student’s academic and private business career. The invited guest speakers will introduce their specialist topics and expand on these according to the specific needs of the target audience, e.g. “how to secure a software patent”, “how to raise capital for private enterprise” and “dissemination of knowledge in research networks”. The students will achieve a general knowledge and insight into related, relevant fields which will enable them to improve their overall communication, research and business competences in relation to their PhD studies. Each student will, according to own interests and goal, further develop (a) given topic(s) in relation to his/her PhD project in a short report.

40 VÆKSTHUS+ Entrepreneurship is the practice of starting new ventures, particularly new businesses. No – it’s about new business areas; mostly exploited by existing companies Entrepreneurship is often a difficult undertaking, as a majority of new businesses fail. – Wrong in high-tech venturing Entrepreneurial activities are substantially different depending on the type of organization that is being started. Partly right – but venturing in a specific business area is pretty much the same inside a company compared to starting a new one Entrepreneurship may involve creating many job opportunities. Yes indeed – and a lot of values too. Wikipedia - the free encyclopedia that anyone can edit What is Entrepreneurship? II John Heebøll VÆKSTHUS+


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